TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN UNIVERSITY COLLEGEFACULTY OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RIT3 Group 3
BACS3033 Social and Professional Issues2018/2019
Name Registration No. Signature Marks
1. Ong Choong Liang 17WMR09323
2. Wong May Chi 17WMR09338
3. Ooi Lun Tat 17WMR09325
4. Tay Hui Chee 17WMU09335
Lecturer/Tutor’s Name: Dr. Wong Thein Lai
Date of Submission: 13 / 08/ 2018
We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to our tutor, Mr Wong Thein Lai, who give the opportunities to us to complete the Social and Professional Issues written assignment.
This assignment cannot be completed without the effort and cooperation from our group members, Ong Choong Liang, Wong May Chi, Ooi Lun Tat and Tay Hui Chee.
We also sincerely thank our lecturer of Social and Professional Issues, Mr Wong Thein Lai for guidance and encouragement in finishing this assignment and also for teaching us in this course.
Last but not least, we would like to express our gratitude to our friends who helped and support us a lot in finalizing this project within the limited time frame.
Table of Content
TOC h u z Acknowledgement PAGEREF _xf4f3631hkz5 h 1
Table of Content PAGEREF _x7u2ja7zmong h 2
Background PAGEREF _uevrnyeredro h 3
Part B : PAGEREF _k0vt2muky4mh h 4
Market Perspective PAGEREF _cx2m6exbip06 h 4
Social Perspective PAGEREF _ccgkabpt50ah h 7
Legal Perspective PAGEREF _syc3m44z1mp2 h 10
Architecture perspectives. PAGEREF _hvaa37a27wdw h 12
Part C PAGEREF _y4d5i1ea065k h 14
The rationale to market perspective. PAGEREF _iirj7ji2wmva h 14
The rationale to social perspective. PAGEREF _g5k1huyynkhx h 14
The rationale to legal perspective. PAGEREF _xtdy8zcsedvd h 15
The rationale to architecture perspective. PAGEREF _vwlr9cfgdliw h 15
Part D PAGEREF _pkiz36p4aou5 h 16
Cybercrime defines as an action which is considered wrong and can be punishable by law. It involve a device which is computer as a crime’ object such as hacking, phishing and spamming, or used to perform a material component of the offence which including child pornography, computer fraud and a crime motivated by racial, sexual, or other prejudice.
Nowadays, Information and communications technologies (ICT) has become one of the part of our daily life and this is indicated by the rapid expansion of the Internet and social networks in cyberspace. It is very much a part of our daily life which provides a huge wealth of information and communication possibilities. Whether users are searching for travel information or buying cinema tickets, they can easily perform those functions anytime anywhere when they are connecting to the Internet. ICT has thus become an essential function of commerce and government. At present, businesses are able to provide the services on demand to their customer easily with the help of computers and the Internet,
However, the Internet has become the proverbial “double-edged sword”. The easy access and widespread use of Internet has leaded a range of criminal activities. The inconvenience of computer crime has comes along with the convenience. From hacking and deception like phishing to content-related offences, including copyright issues and online child pornography, the Internet offers criminals an increasingly lucrative sphere in which to operate.
According to the Gunter Ollman, the costs of cybercrime are increasing in scale and gravity as the ‘industrialisation’ of malicious software (or crime-ware) rapidly (as cited in Ollman, 2008). For example, according to AFP, in 2009, there have total 336,655 complaints reporting which in direct losses of USD$559.7 million been received by the United States Internet Crime Complaint Centre (as cited in AFP, 2010). Given this is an estimate based on the complaints only for one Internet crime reporting service in one country, the real costs of cybercrime worldwide including the cybercrime in asia are considerable. In short the rapid growth of e-commerce and the Internet has brought a lot of benefits but also the emergence of various forms of crime that make use of the strengths and weaknesses of mass interconnectivity. (Broadhurst & Chan, 2013)
There have two stakeholders involving in a cybercrime which are the attackers and victims. Attacker can make use of vulnerabilities in software and hardware. They can make use of security vulnerabilities by tricking victims to open the emails which are been infected or visiting corrupt websites that infect their computers with malicious software. Those attackers can take advantage of victims who fail to follow basic cyber security practices, such as changing their passwords frequently.
Broadhurst, R & Chan, L.Y.C. (2013), ‘Cybercrime in Asia: Trends and Challenges’, pp. 49-50.
Part B :
Estimating market impacts of cybercrimes and web attacks has always been a challenge. In one view is that since many cyber crimes go unreported, such impacts are tend to be underestimated. Tracing of data from different sources indicates market losses linked with cyberattacks. A recent study estimates regarding the size of global cybercrime industry generates over US $1.5 trillion. A popular view is that cybercrimes causes more severe market impacts than most current crimes.
There are many risks found in market perspective that involved cybercrimes. The penetration rate of smartphones is Asia according to Nielsen report, is very high with Hong Kong and Singapore at 87% and Malaysia at 80% which has opened up a new avenue for identity thieves to strike. The following rise of Internet banking has led to a corresponding increase of trojans and malwares that steal login details to gain access to funds in bank. There is one such malware called “The Dyre Wolf” that uses Dyre malware to directly targets corporate banking accounts and has successfully stolen a million dollars from companies. With this being said, mobile devices are not spared either as there are cases where the threat actor develops a mobile application that looks alike to a legitimate banking application, and uses spear phishing to steal login details. This can affect user to avoid using online banking or making online transaction when shopping online, hence reducing the number of potential sellers as there is no demand.
Furthermore, smaller businesses do not have sufficient income to invest in cyber defense even when the breach of their systems would end up in losses greater than the initial investment but many new companies do not realize that a minimal investment can have a significant increase in security. This means that small businesses have become an attractive target for cyber attackers as they have weak security and protection. In fact, hackers are able to attack thousands of small businesses simultaneously exploiting the vulnerabilities of software and using tools previously reserved for large companies 1. With this reason, new companies may end up failing the businesses as the losses are too great to handle causing large businesses to become the sole survivors in the market.
All the world’s economies use the same basic infrastructure, software, hardware, and standards with billions of connected devices 2. If businesses and governments do not develop a decent defense policies, and if they do not act quickly, the economic losses affected by cyber attacks could sum up to 3 trillion dollars by 2020 3. The risks may impact different aspect of business life, not only those related to information technology, but also on the business and corporate assets. Loss of data integrity can lead to economic loss. In fact, information nowadays often has the same economic value. Another risk can be physical impact damage, a kind of attacks that affect the equipment, systems, networks and control instruments’ integrity, slowing or blocking the production, hence damaging the company’s business. To recover from the damage, a sum of money and time is needed, which further the damage of the attack.
Besides that, piracy committed by almost one billion people every year, with the creative industry losing few billions dollars. This is because perpetrators want things for free and Internet is a place where they can obtain it. It affected the market. Hence, solution has been made to counter the piracy by introducing Digital Rights Management (DRM) but this does little to stop perpetrators from obtaining it illegally through piracy.
Improve security of a business
With the existence of cybercrimes in the market, businesses will enhance and strengthen their own security to protect themselves from being breached. This ensures that the business will operate as intended.
Challenge antivirus company
Cyber crimes are a serious threat that should not be taken lightly especially when it involve with market that can cause losses of millions to billions or even trillions of dollars. With this, it actually challenge the existing antivirus company to further and improve their antivirus to provide better protections.
More products/services offered to protect consumer
Newer or enhanced products/services are introduced that serve as a solution to counter the cyber crimes. This allow consumer to choose various types of products/services that best suited them to protect themselves.
Cybercrimes can cause the economy to fall as it can affect any businesses, corporates, and even individual as they wish. This could end up with losses over million of dollars.
Increase of cyber crimes
Cyber crimes keep on increasing as more and more potential victims are found, hence attracting them to commit. The gain is so much that causes the interest of committing cyber crimes to increase.
No new business join the market
With cyber crimes causing such a huge losses, new and small businesses are afraid to join in the current market as they are very vulnerable to these cyber attacks. This is because they can not afford to investment heavily into security unlike big businesses.
In my opinion, cyber crime is much more dangerous than any other ordinary crime. This is because it is harder to track down the criminal as the crime can be committed at anywhere and anytime in the world without anyone knowing when it will occur. The identity of the criminal will also remain anonymous. Moreover, in cybercrime, the criminal can hack through one system and get access to all the sensitive informations. Cybercrimes that are involved, can cause various kind of damage in terms of time, cost, equipment, and other assets to individuals, corporates, businesses, and even economies. The reason why cyber crime even exist in the first place is mainly because businesses have become an attractive target for cyber attackers as the value in terms of money that can be gained is huge. A recent study shows that cybercrime is very unlikely to slow down any time soon, which means that businesses around the globe must be more alert and careful about how they run their computers and networks. In the Asia Pacific region, cybercrime has inflicted US$171 billion in damages, nearly a third of the global total of US$544.5 billion, says a study by the Centre for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and online security company, McAfee. In fact, it is hard to avoid being the favourable target for cyber attackers to attack, but precautions can be taken to reduce the chances of being the target. Other than that, piracy is also one of the issues faced by creative industry as it is hard to avoid piracy. Although steps has been taken to solve the problem of piracy, it somehow created another problem. For example, companies has been adopting Digital Rights Management (DRM) and yet it still can be cracked. It only delay the time for the perpetrators to obtain it. Denuvo is an example with a Chinese warez group called “3DM” solving and cracking the encryption developed by Denuvo Software Solutions GmbH.
1 Michael Fey said that small businesses are attacked because they often do not keep their software up to date, or keep track of their financial data. McAfee CTO: Cyber Criminals Target SME’s, February 2014, by Kevin Wright, available at: (retrieved 6-8-2018).
2 Rod Beckstrom: “Anything connected to the Internet can be hacked. Everything is being connected to the Internet So everything is becoming vulnerable and a new dynamic of cybercrimes countered by security measures, countered by new criminal efforts, and so forth, is now unleashed”, London Conference on Cyberspace, 2 November 2011, available at: (retrieved 6-8-2018)
3 World Economic Forum – Global risks 2014 Ninth edition, available at: (retrieved 6-8-2018).
The term cyber crime is defined as the official crime term as criminals started getting aggressive over the online and becoming a threat for millions of Internet users. Social Medias are considered as part of life for a major portion of Internet users. Almost every internet users have at least one or more accounts in different social media platforms. The rapid growth of Internet use in Asia, including a tenfold or more increases in access in China, Indonesia and India since 2002 has also been accompanied by significant increases in cybercrime. The development of commercial-scale exploit toolkits and criminal networks that focus on monetization of malware have amplified the risks of cybercrime. The expansion in Internet participation a drastic rise cybercrime and information security problems have occurred in Japan, South Korea and greater China since 2005. Cyber crime get the benefits of the anonymity, privateness and connection provided by the Internet, therefore intruders can attack the foundations of our modern information society. Cyber crime involved computer viruses, botnets, Denial of Service attacks, hacktivism, malware, cyber bullying, cyber stalking, cyber terrorism, cyber pornography and spam.
There are some social risks in cyber that users should be aware of. For example, nowadays people are willing to engage in risky online behavior in order to simply access Wi-Fi. This is because they want to use the public free Wi-Fi, instead of their own mobile data because once they finish their quota they need to wait until it to be renewed. People are also known to share their passwords with friends, access financial information via unsecured public Wi-Fi connections and click on suspicious links thereby increasing the vulnerability of their connected devices. Most of the consumers who took a compromising action in response to a potential phishing incident experienced negative consequences, including money stolen from bank accounts, credit cards opened in their name and unauthorized apps installed on their device.
Cybercrime in Asia as elsewhere may be caused by offenders or loose groups who are hacking “for fun” or ego driven, but can include political or ideological motivation, hatred, or simply to earn a profit. However the involvement of traditional criminal groups or new criminal networks is likely to be associated with financial deception and theft 1. However, when an attack occurs, it is often unclear who is behind the attack, where it originates or their motive 2.
Cyber communication is society’s newest way to interact or to communicate with peer. Online social networking websites such as Facebook, text messages and emails provide users with an effective and fast way to communicate with people all over the world. Teenagers in particular spend hours online every day, on computers or smartphones. It is also state that 48% of teenagers believe the Internet improves their relationships. With social websites becoming increasingly popular, youth are able to stay connected to real and online friends and family. Some teenagers believe that cyber connections help them feel confident to be their true side of them. Instant messaging programs, used by an estimated 13 million teenagers, allow conversations with friends and family to occur in real time. Online communication tools open the door for friendships with other teenagers near and far. People no matter in what age should have the awareness of the cyber crime. People should not fully trust on their peers and gave their peer their password. Besides, teenagers should not post their things online oftenly. People that like to connect to public free Wi-Fi must not continue using those public free Wi-Fi. They should avoid those unsecured wireless network connection and stay on the cellular network whenever possible. If people must use Wi-Fi, make sure it requires a password and check on the security.
Offer and Shopping Scams
Users would often come across messages or post which would say ‘Click on the link to claim the offer’ or ‘spin the wheel to win’. These offers would generally ask the user to forward the message to another 20 people once they have registered in order to get the code or coupon. Users that have registered will not get the coupons but the host would get their personal information. Most of the women tend to fall for this scam, where the buyers try to give amazing offers. For example, iPhone X for RM 2,500.00 and many others, then they asked the user to do the advance transfer to make a booking. But, once the sellers get the advance, they tend to abscond. These guys will communicate genuinely till they get the required money.
In my opinion, social cyber crime is omnipresent and it is very dangerous for people who is currently using social network sites to post their personal information. Other than that, people who like to use public free Wi-Fi is also dangerous, especially when they enter their bank information, hackers may get their information while they entering their details. We can minimize the threat of social cyber crime by getting a little aware and conscious while using social media platforms. This is because it is harder to track down the criminal as the crime can be committed at anywhere and anytime in the world without anyone knowing when it will occur. The identity of the criminal will also remain anonymous. Moreover, in cybercrime, the criminal can hack through one system and get access to all the sensitive informations. Cybercrimes that are involved, can cause various kind of damage in terms of time, cost, equipment, and other assets to individuals, corporates, businesses, and even economies. A considerable amount of cybercrime include the online harassment, stalking and child grooming, these cybercrimes are made easier through the use of social networking sites such as Instagram, Twitter or Facebook. These services are ideal for facilitating social contact and business relationships, but they also afford insufficient protection to unsophisticated and vulnerable users such as children or teenagers. However, it should bear in mind that the social concern for high crime rate is not because of its nature, but due to potential disturbance it causes to the society. In supplement, some individuals are victims of crime in a more specific sense. The victims of crime may lose anything that has value. Safety, peace, money, and property are perhaps basic values, because they contribute to the satisfaction of many wishes. As evident in present scenario where money is more valuable than values, a definite hike in the corruption related offences are observed where social morality is low which influence the commission of crime attached less social stigma than ever before. Incidentally economic crime is on its peak. This clearly reflects that crime has its interdependence with other social phenomenon. Also, the population is one of the important factors influencing incidences of crimes. A positive correlation between the growth in incidences of crime and the population of the country has been observed.
1. Broadhurst, R. and Kim Kwang Raymond, Choo, 2011. Cybercrime and on-line
safety in cyberspace. in Smith C., Zhang, S. ; R. Barbaret eds.. International
Handbook of Criminology, Routledge: New York, pp 153-165.
2. Barboza, D. (2010, 1 February ). Hacking for fun and profit in China’s underworld.
The New York Times. Retrieved 2011, from
3. Legal Info (2009), Crime Overview aiding and abetting or Accessory, Available at: http://www.legalinfo.com/content/criminal-law/crime-overview-aiding-and-abetting-or-accessory. html, Visited: 28/01/2012
4. Shantosh Rout (2008), Network Interferences, Available at: http://www.santoshraut.com/ forensic/ cybercrime.htm, Visited: 28/01/2012
Generally, there have three major categories of cyber crimes which are the crimes against people, crimes against Property, and Crimes Against Government. First, crimes against people which will affect the people’s lives such as cyber harassment and stalking, distribution of child pornography, various types of spoofing, credit card fraud, human trafficking, identity theft, and online related libel or slander. Second, crimes against property which including DDOS attacks, hacking, virus transmission, cyber and typosquatting, computer vandalism, copyright infringement, and IPR violations. Third, crimes against government, a cyber crime that committed against government, it define as an attack on that sovereignty of nation and an act of war. Cybercrimes against the government such as hacking, accessing confidential information, cyber warfare, cyber terrorism, and pirated software.
In order to deal with those cyber crime, a lot of cyber laws had been enacted or been amendment based on the existing law. There are three main terms of law that related to cyber law, Information Technology Law, Cyber Law, and Computer Law.
However, the improved criminal-law that relate to cyber crime never been absolutely synchronous with cyber crime because of the hysteresis in both the law enforcement and legislation compared with the relevant criminal phenomena.
One of the cyber crime, Web?page “jacking”, forcefully take control of a website by cracking the password and change it. Therefore the website’s actual owner does not have any move control over what appears on that website. It also is an effective way to steal a customer’s identification. (Shankar, 2009) According to China Daily, in December 2003, a cloned Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporations’ internet banking web?page that compromised an unknown number of customers’ identification illustrates this form of cyber?theft (China Daily, 7 December 2003, p. 2). In order to deal with this type of cyber crime, there have special law which is Web-Jacking, Indian Penal Code (IPC) Sec. 383 that specially enacted for this web-page “jacking”.
Malaysia also had enacted the law which specially to withstand the cyber crime. For example, COMPUTER CRIMES ACT 1997, this act aims to provide for offenses relating to the misuse of computers. It focusing on hacking, unauthorized access offence, unauthorized modification offence, wrongful communications and abatements and attempts. (Appudarai ; Ramalingam, 2007)
Positive side :
The Rise of the Law against the increasing number of Cyber Crimes
Amendment from existing law to better combat the cyber crimes
Negative side :
Due to the law still unable to respond effectively to cyber crime, the perpetrator become more savage to attack or to commit a crime in cyberspace.
In my opinion, cyber law is the law that used in the Internet and ICT. It provides the legal protection to the people while using the Internet. However, the number of cyber crime does not really reduce and become more and more, even there have a lot of laws been enacted to deal with cyber crime.According to the Sussman, the law enforcement agencies in many jurisdictions have been unable to respond effectively to cyber?crime and even in the most advanced nations, “play catch?up” with cyber savvy criminals .(Sussmann, 1999)
Shankar,Ravi (2009), “Evolution of Cyber Crime”
Appudurai, J and Ramalingam, C.L. (2007), ;Computer Crimes: A Case Study of What Malaysia Can Learn from Others?,; Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law: Vol. 2 : No. 2 , Article 1.
Sussmann, M.A. (1999), “The critical challenges from international high?tech and computer?related crime at the millennium”, Duke J. of Comp. ; Int’l L., Vol. 9, p. 451.
Cyber threats are becoming more complex with the blending of once distinct types of attack
into more damaging forms, as a result, information security has become increasingly important. Not surprisingly, therefore the threats posed by hackers and viruses have received extensive coverage in the mass media. Traditionally, the public has addressed the cyber threat through a third party who is aware of their information security responsibilities, and act accordingly. Thus, security policies (e.g news), complementary education (e.g school) and awareness programmes are now commonplace for the public. However, many hacking case is still commonly found around the world.
Spamming is an electronic messaging system for the sending of unsolicited messages to many recipients, especially advertisement which typically results in irritation to the recipients. In some cases, spamming has also resulted in the slowing down of internet traffic and this is the most common case in traditional. For now, virus and malware are more frequently being found. Viruses and malware are malicious computer software programs that cause damage or disruptions to other computer programs, steal information from the computer, or control the computer without permission. These programs infect computer systems and networks and are spread through sharing of contaminated computer files, especially through pictures, music or video files. Youths generations are normally infected, this is because they share and consume their resource content frequently.
Lessig had declared that Internet behaviors, in general, can be monitored or spread by architecture. The architecture means the affordability of technology, termed as the architecture, also limits users’ actions in cyberspace. This is also sometimes pointed to as the pattern of technology or the infrastructure. The architecture of cyberspace, although many parties had provided a technical solution to the prevention, monitoring, and enforcement of cybercrime, it still frequently circumvented. System-based methods for payment of creative materials, which was intended as the solution to piracy, also quickly circumvented by the emergence of peer-to-peer file-sharing services. With digital technology become more high-level, technology allows an easier invasion of privacy. As mentioned above, spam mail is another example that typically considered to be a form of harassment and an increased difficulty and traffic for the internet service providers. Though there are surveillance and enforcement procedures for service providers, most of the majority don’t have that capability. In result, the affordability of technology, termed as the architecture, also limits users’ activities in cyberspace. This is also sometimes applied to as the form of technology or the infrastructure.
For other examples, malware still likely bring some possible risks, but most of the Malware already had countermeasures to solve it such as software programs designed to prevent and detect intrusions. For this reasons, many parties attempt to improve technologies in its fight against cyber threats with continuously releases new patches to update security systems with more features or add some technological loopholes. In its efforts to enhance security for individual consumers, some country in Asian has mandated a 2-Factor-Authentication process for banking transactions. These technological improvements are meant only to prevent hacker attack or cyber threat such as malware, viruses, and hacking, and makes little to minimize harassment type behaviors, such as scams and cyberbullying.
Improve security level
Due to the attack from the hacker, it also improves the security level of technologies. For example, antivirus can detect more threat and prevent the attack before the threat had made damage.
Discover new technologies
Though cybercrime brings a lot of market loss, it also helps the people to discover new technologies. For example, hashing, data encryption-decryption. As more data success being decrypted by the hacker, more distinct types of encryption will be introduced as countermeasure.
Consume more resource
As necessary to prevent the attack from the hacker, it is necessary to consume more cost, storage, or CPU resource, even processing time to do reparation or countermeasure to avoid or solve the threats.
In my opinion, common to every crime has the role of the offender and with recent developments in criminology, there are not only explanations as to the causes of criminality, but also how crime is committed. Hence the public had tried to provide insights and tools for understanding and addressing the threat. However, unless if someone recognizes the potential for viewing computer crime from a criminological perspective, this knowledge and technologies cannot be used in effective ways and the benefits/profit will be lost.
The rationale to market perspective.
The threat of cyber crime is multi-dimensional, aiming on individuals, businesses, and governments at a fast growing rate. Stolen personal and financial data are used to gain access to bank accounts and credit cards, or even establish new lines of credit. The solution to that is to target active underground forums to disrupt the circulation of powerful cyber criminal tools. This is to make sure that newer criminals with less experience, are unable to search and use such tools that are readily available. Besides that, establishing an online self-reporting system for cybercrime victims to allow widespread gathering and analysis of cybercrime statistics is also part of the solution. This is because cybercriminals have realized that stealing $1 from a thousand people is easier than stealing $1000 from one person. Or in another words, if a person loses $1 million, police would take broad and well-coordinated action, but if a cybercriminal steals $1 from everyone, would they ever be caught? Furthermore, many cyber crimes tend to go unreported as such impacts are tend to be underestimated, causing severe market impact. This is the reason why establishing an online self-reporting system is best suited for everyone.
Government should play a role in making sure that new businesses with minimal investment in security, are able to survive in the market that is targeted by cybercriminals. Simply because businesses rather not to enter a popular targeted market as they know the losses is too great for them to handle. This end up with only large businesses dominating the market. Making lesser new potential businesses entering. This also means that, economy will not grow and expand that fast as the revenue from taxation is low. Besides that, piracy is also an issue that damages the market by individuals. Piracy is the act of reproducing, using, or distributing products in digital formats without the authorization of the legal owners. This affected creative industry, by not buying or paying for the products that are meant to be sold. When a business fails to get sufficient income from selling products, the business may fail, so businesses are encouraged to adopt using Digital Rights Management (DRM) to protect the products from being pirated. Although DRM may not solve the problem completely, but at least it can reduce the numbers.
The rationale to social perspective.
We live in a society where people nowadays are comfortable putting everything they do on social media which are open for the whole world to see. People are advised to choose wisely of what they share and to whom. Keep personal information to yourself as fraudsters have an innovative way of being able to paint a clear picture of your life. Keeping sensitive and personal information off of social media is a way to reduce the risk. It is possible to ensure the security of your personal data of those social media platforms with a very minimal effort. Do not share your password with any of your friends or colleagues or even on any online form. Users are recommend to set their password into a mix of uppercase, lowercase, numbers and symbols. It is also suggested avoiding share information about your debit or credit card over the social media networks in order to avoid credit/debit card fraud. Morality pertains to the differentiation between right and wrong intentions, decisions and actions as related to preset “norms”. Morality is part of social control. It is based on individual norms and on society-at large norms.
The rationale to legal perspective.
Understanding cyber law is the most basic and importance things to the people who use the internet to avoid for breaking the cyber law and also to protect ourselves from cyber crimes.
There is need to enhance understanding of how attacker use social media and other cyber resources for doing some illegal activities. Therefore, there can better to guard and fight against those cyber crimes.
The action taken to counteract the increasing crimes increased deterrence, which represented an increased probability of detection by new police forces and an increased strictness of penalty through new laws.
According to Moore (2011), the nature of the Internet and the use of Internet, will likely fail the efforts of law enforcement officers in combating the cybercrimes. Specific acts that enacted in law is the absolutely necessary to withstand cyber crimes but it could not warranty full protection to cyber space due to the involving of borderless communication. Enforcement officers who are well versed in technology are also one of the requirements to ensure that the law could be enforced successfully. (Supayah ; Ibrahim, 2016)
Supayah, G A/L ; Ibrahim, J, (2016). “An Overview of Cyber Security in Malaysia”, Kuwait Chapter of the Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol. 6, Iss. 4
The rationale to architecture perspective.
Broadhurst, R ; Chan, L.Y.C. (2013), ‘Cybercrime in Asia: Trends and Challenges’, pp. 49-50.
Jewkes, Y. (2003). “Policing the Net: crime, regulation and surveillance in cyberspace.” In Y. Jewkes (Ed.), Dot.cons: Crime, Deviance and Identity on the Internet (pp. 15-35).
R. Broadhurst, “Developments in the global law enforcement of cyber?crime,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies ; Management, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 408–433, Jul. 2006.