The present study was conducted to evaluate the prosthetic status of the prisoners of central jail, Jodhpur Rajasthan, for a period of 6 months. The study was carried out on 981 prisoner inmates of central jail who were imprisoned for more than 3 months. The inmates were interviewed and examined using modified WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997). The present study was carried out with the following objectives –
– To find out the general information about the prisoners and oral hygiene measures.
– To identify adverse oral habits among prisoners.
– To identify oral hygiene status of prisons.
– To identify the prosthetic health status of prisoners of central jail.
– To find the Effect of various factors on prosthetic status of prisoners.
The results of this cross-sectional study on prisoners provide a unique opportunity to analyse the oral health status in this left out population of society. The prison population is a unique and challenging patient population with many health problems, including poor oral health. Dental diseases reach epidemic proportions in this population.48
According to 2009-2010 agency annual report report – The average age of inmates is 33.4 years.58 The Tihar jail report 201058 showed that majority of the Prison population around 54% were in the age group of 21-30 years and next come the prisoners in the age group of 30-50 years which is around 32%.
Our study also shows that maximum 56 % of the prisoners belong to age group between 31-60 years. It is in concordance with a study conducted by M Osborn 20 which shows that mean age of the subset of respondents who underwent oral examinations was 35.8 years.
Study conducted by Mundoor Manjunath Dayakar 201444 also showed that majority of the inmates were in the age group of 31 to 40 (56.1%), followed by the age group of years 21 to 30 (19.5%) 44
Colman McGrath17 stated that the oral health status of the adult prisoner group was poor; many were edentulous, having untreated decay and poor periodontal health. In addition, a considerable proportion was in need of prosthetic care. Their ‘clinical’ oral health was poorer than that of older adults in the general Hong Kong population where the prevalence of edentulism among older people (aged 65-74) is reported to be 12%.
The present study shows that 46.4 % of prisoners needs prosthesis in the maxillary arch whereas 41 % needs prosthesis in the mandibular arch. Similar study conducted by Dr. Anup N 46 showed slightly higher prosthesis needs of 44.3% in the maxillary arch and 46.4% inmates need prosthesis in mandibular arch.
The present study also showed that 42.5% of prisoners needs more than one unit prosthesis,while 0.9% of prisoners needed full prosthesis in maxillary jaw whereas in mandibular jaw 37.3% of prisoners needed more than one unit prosthesis and 1.3% of prisoners needed full prosthesis ,these results were were quite higher in comparasion with study conducted by Dhanker K 43 displaying 14.6% in maxillary and 13% in mandibular arch need more than one tooth replacement, while 1.7% and 1.6% required complete denture in maxillary and mandibular arch respectively. Similar results have been shown in study conducted by Dr Anup N.46
The results of the present study were in concordance with study done by Uma SR and Hiremath SS.76 Another study conducted by Veera Reddy 5 showed 32.2% of prisoners needed prosthesis. Colman McGrath17 in a study showed that three-quarters of the prisoners (4S) were in need of prosthetic treatment.17
Among the prisoners examined in the present study it was seen that only 2.7 % of prisoners were having prosthesis in the maxillary arch whereas in mandibular arch only 3% were having prosthesis, similarly study conducted by Veera Reddy5 showed that, 8.8% had prostheses in the upper and lower jaws (6.6% and 2.2%, respectively).
This can be due to high incidence of caries and periodontal disease, poor treatment facilities in prisons. Also with increasing age, attitudes towards oral health and their care seeking behaviors and the limited options of treatment modalities in prisons are responsible for low prosthesis among prisoners.