The Information Age The Computer age

The Information Age
The Computer age, Digital age or New Media age

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Abbreviations

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ICT Information and Communication’s technology
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
DOM Document Object Model Storage
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
GIS Geographic Information Systems
ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
RFID Radio frequency identification
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
POP Post Office Protocol
NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol
VLE Virtual learning Environment
VC Video Conferencing
CDMA Code division multiple access
WCDMA Wide Code Division Multiple Access
24/7 24 hours a day, 7 days a week

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Summary
This eBook sums up the Information Age as a whole taking into consideration the information age itself, online services, life in the information and the digital divide.
Chapter one, the information Age, bears information regarding our ever-changing technological world including the ways in which technology has enabled us to convey our information, the opportunities that have raised as a result of the rapidly advancing computer power as well as the issues and challenges that have sadly been created as a result of the information age is presence.
The technologies used to convey information include the ever so eye-catching multimedia. An example of the available opportunities created include the different ways in which we are now able to present information and a drastic challenge discussed is the need for us to be lifelong learners in a world of change.
Chapter two, Online Services, explains in depth the range of different services available online. They include communication, real-time information, commerce, government, education, business, entertainment, download services, web storage, online mapping and routing and lastly cloud based applications.
This chapter emphasizes the purpose, benefits and drawbacks, to name a few features of its content, of the online services mentioned. Online services are available only because of the internet and the internet is an incredibly key part of the information age.
Chapter three, Life in the Information Age, effectively explains the impact of ICT on the way people conduct their professional, personal and even social lives. This chapter includes the impact of ICT on people’s working styles, communication, education, entertainment and leisure, banking and shopping, and employment opportunities. The chapter paints a realistic picture of life in the information.
Chapter four, The Digital Divide, which is also the last chapter, illustrates the divide between people with access to Information and Communications technology and those without, on a global scale. The chapter explains the factors that create the digital divide, such as the technological factors, the impact of the digital divide, for example, on the economy. This chapter also elaborates the extent of the digital divide, the measures being taken to narrow the gap and the benefits as well as drawbacks of reducing the gap.
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The Information Age
Introduction
The information age is the shift, to an economy based on information computerization, from a time of traditional industry brought about by the Industrial revolution.
Quickly progressing computing power means increasing amounts of data is being created and stored. Majority of this data can be copied, modified and accessed from anywhere, at any time and by anyone.
Technologies are enhancing the way people convey the information they have, creating opportunities that people are taking and developing issues and challenges that people are facing.
The information Age is affecting the way people lead their lives, but not only positively. ?
Technologies Used to Convey Information

Internet

The Internet is the worldwide structure of organized computer networks which uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to connect devices all over the globe. It is an interconnected network that consists of public, private, academic, business, and government networks of local to worldwide scope, connected by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies.
The internet is a worldwide computer network which supplies a large amount of information as well as communication facilities, involving interrelated networks utilizing regular communication protocols (a communication protocol refers a structure of rules which allow multiple entities of a communications system to pass on information through any sort of medium).
History of the Internet
The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing his “Galactic Network” concept. He imagined a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today. Licklider was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA (The Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defence responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military), starting in October 1962. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA, Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts, of the importance of this networking concept.
Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961 and the first book on the subject in 1964. Kleinrock convinced Roberts of the theoretical practicality of communications using packets rather than circuits, which was a major step along the path towards computer networking. The other key step was to make the computers talk together. To explore this, in 1965 working with Thomas Merrill, Roberts connected the TX-2 computer in Massachusetts to the Q-32 in California with a low speed dial-up telephone line creating the first (however small) wide-area computer network ever built. The result of this experiment was the realization that the time-shared computers could work well together, running programs and retrieving data as necessary on the remote machine, but that the circuit switched telephone system was totally inadequate for the job. Kleinrock’s conviction of the need for packet switching was confirmed.
In late 1966 Roberts went to DARPA to develop the computer network concept and quickly put together his plan for the “ARPANET”, publishing it in 1967. At the conference where he presented the paper, there was also a paper on a packet network concept from the UK by Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL(National Physical Laboratory). Scantlebury told Roberts about the NPL work as well as that of Paul Baran and others at RAND. The RAND ( “Research and development” Corporation in America) group had written a paper on packet switching networks for secure voice in the military in 1964. It happened that the work at MIT (1961-1967), at RAND (1962-1965), and at NPL (1964-1967) had all proceeded simultaneously without any of the researchers knowing about the other work. The word “packet” was adopted from the work at NPL and the proposed line speed to be used in the ARPANET design was upgraded from 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps.
In August 1968, after Roberts and the DARPA funded community had refined the overall structure and specifications for the ARPANET, an RFQ (Request for Quotation) was released by DARPA for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP’s). The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by Frank Heart at Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). As the BBN team worked on the IMP’s with Bob Kahn playing a major role in the overall ARPANET architectural design, the network topology (A network topology is the pattern in which nodes (i.e. computers, printers, routers or other devices) are connected to a local area network (LAN) or other network via links (e.g. twisted pair copper wire cable or optical fibre cable), and economics were designed and optimized by Roberts working with Howard Frank and his team at Network Analysis Corporation, and the network measurement system was prepared by Kleinrock’s team at UCLA.
Due to Kleinrock’s early development of packet switching theory and his focus on analysis, design and measurement, his Network Measurement Centre at UCLA was selected to be the first node on the ARPANET. All this came together in September 1969 when BBN installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected. Doug Engelbart’s project on “Augmentation of Human Intellect” (which included NLS (oN-Line System), an early hypertext system) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) provided a second node. SRI supported the Network Information Centre, led by Elizabeth (Jake) Feinler and including functions such as maintaining tables of host name to address mapping as well as a directory of the RFC’s.
One month later, when SRI was connected to the ARPANET, the first host-to-host message was sent from Kleinrock’s laboratory to SRI. Two more nodes were added at UC Santa Barbara and University of Utah. These last two nodes incorporated application visualization projects, with Glen Culler and Burton Fried at UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara) investigating methods for display of mathematical functions using storage displays to deal with the problem of refresh over the net, and Robert Taylor and Ivan Sutherland at Utah investigating methods of 3-D representations over the net. Thus, by the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET, and the budding Internet was off the ground. Even at this early stage, it should be noted that the networking research incorporated both work on the underlying network and work on how to utilize the network. This tradition continues to this day.
Computers were added quickly to the ARPANET during the following years, and work proceeded on completing a functionally complete Host-to-Host protocol and other network software. In December 1970 the Network Working Group (NWG) working under S. Crocker finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). As the ARPANET sites completed implementing NCP during the period 1971-1972, the network users finally could begin to develop applications.
In October 1972, Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. It was also in 1972 that the initial “hot” application, electronic mail, was introduced. In March Ray Tomlinson at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software, motivated by the need of the ARPANET developers for an easy coordination mechanism. In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages. From there email took off as the largest network application for over a decade. This was a harbinger of the kind of activity we see on the World Wide Web today.

ARPANET
APRANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) was the first network to execute the protocol suite known as TCP/IP and it was a primitive packet switching network. These technologies turned into the technical groundwork of the internet. The primary funding of ARPANET came from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defence for the United States of America.

Packet Switching

Packet switching is a method of data transmission whereby a message is first dismantled into several parts which are sent individually, through whichever means is found best for each packet and then reconstructed at the endpoint/destination.

Advantages of the Internet

1. Ample Information and Resources
The Internet is home to information regarding anything and everything. And it has been made easy by search engines, for users, to now find all this information. For instance, the search for advice by people on the internet has become common. The idea here is that whatever problem the searcher is facing, there is someone, somewhere who has faced it too and most likely solved it.
2. Online Services and E-commerce
It is now possible for people to carry out financial transactions online. Funds can be sent or received; it is possible to pay taxes and utility bills and movie tickets can also be booked, over the Internet comfortably while at home.
3. Entertainment
One of the major reasons people enjoy using the internet is the entertainment that it has to offer. Movies can be watched, music listened to and even novels and gossip columns read, and additionally games can also be played over the Internet. The Internet has turned into an ocean of entertainment with room for everyone.
4. Unlimited Communication
Due to it being cheap and convenient the internet has made communication with other people easier. The costs paid to the internet service providers are the only costs which people incur.
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Disadvantages of the Internet

1. Virus, Trojan & Other Malware
These are harmful programs that infect computer systems and degrade the performance of the infected computer. They can additionally make a computer malfunction and the repairs for such actions are very costly especially if vital data is lost. What makes matters worse is these programs can easy be gotten by simply clicking on a link on the internet that appears to be genuine.

2. Addiction to Internet
People can get addicted to the internet much like with everything else. There are some people that spend huge sums of hours on the internet as strange as it sounds and this harshly affects their social interaction skills. The addiction to the internet has even been classified as one of the major causes of obesity and has, in some cases, led to some diseases like carpal tunnel syndrome. Lucky with some guidance and help people who are addicted to the internet can defeat this challenge.

3. Leakage of Private Information
There has been a drastic increase in fraud cases as a result of the internet turning into a market place. The most susceptible information is that from credit and debit cards. This means people have to be especially careful when carrying out online transactions. It is vital that people use trustworthy payment processors rather than sending their details directly to someone or business. ?
How the Internet has affected Society

1. The Internet and Education
One of the major impacts of the internet has been its provision of unbounded possibilities for learning. The future of education can be classified as a networked one. The internet can be used to produce and share knowledge and create different ways of teaching and learning that fascinate and motivate the imagination of students anywhere and at any time using any device.
2. The Internet and Consumer Trends
Newer technologies are rapidly increasing the pace of the transfer of information which makes bespoke shopping a possibility. The internet provides us with an immense wealth of possibilities for purchasing products. Additionally, a variety of advantages are brought up from e-commerce, which has become a vital distribution channel for goods and services. Airline tickets can be booked; you can purchase a T-shirt from Australia, or even acquire food from an online grocery store. New innovative programs support secure business transactions and create new moneymaking opportunities.
Here, it is the consumer benefiting, while the unadventurous rules and methods of marketing and distribution disintegrate. The information accessed by consumers broadens, and it is their reviews of their experiences with numerous products and services which are prioritized. Admission to product comparisons and rankings, user reviews and comments, as well as recommendations from bloggers who have huge followings has moulded a fresh situation for retail trade, consumer behaviour as well as the economy as a whole.
3. The Ability to Multi-task
It is possible to work while on the move or even while sipping your coffee. The internet allows us to perform multiple tasks at once and also from different devices. Work can be done on one screen while you update your social media on another and follow a recipe on yet another screen. However, majority have seen distracted drivers who are travelling down the highway at incredible speeds, simultaneously texting, making phone calls, or simply reading. This has become a terrible trend while using the internet. Studies have shown that people using the internet are highly prone to multitasking while engaging with online activities and this is in everything from listening to music or exercising to cooking or even talking on the phone. A major reason for this behavioural shift for online consumers is the introduction of portable internet devices – whether its phones or laptops. The internet is now with a large number of people at all times regardless of where their eventful lives take them.

Impact of Internet in Schools
There are a variety of tasks that students can perform with the internet. Not only can they communicate with international students, they can obtain from others’ knowledge and experiences, partake in chat rooms, share ideas and solutions and learn about the many miscellaneous cultures out there.
While the Internet is very useful to students, there are also benefits for parents and teachers. Parents can become more involved in their children’s education by connecting the school with homes, libraries or other access ports.
Teachers can adjust to the different learning styles when in the classroom, they can also set their own pace of teaching. Individual teaching methods can become more available, which has been proven to be a factor in student achievement.
The opportunity for teachers to teach at more than one place simultaneously arises. They may be in a small town but through the Internet, they can be linked to students in more populated areas.
Also, the Internet enables administrators and teachers to spend less time on administration and recordkeeping. This would also give them more time to spend with their students.
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Multimedia

Multimedia refers to content that combines a mixture of different content forms such as video, audio, animations, text, images, and interactive content. Multimedia differs from media that uses only basic computer displays such as old-style forms of printed or hand-produced material or even text-only.
Multimedia is artistry (as the intertwining of video, text and sound) for conveying ideas (such as art, communication, or entertainment) in which several media are employed.
It may also be defined as the perfectly consistent integration of animation, graphics, audio, text, motion video and still images in a way that provides individual users with profound levels of control and interaction.

History of Multimedia
In the real world, though, when most people talk about multimedia, they are talking about computer multimedia. The word has come to represent the realm of computer graphics, video games, on-screen presentations, and a whole world of other possibilities. One of the earliest and best-known examples of multimedia was the video game Pong. Developed in 1972 by Nolan Bushnell (the founder of a then new company called Atari), the game consisted of two simple paddles that batted a square “ball” back and forth across the screen, like tennis. It started as an arcade game, and eventually ended up in many homes.
In 1976, another revolution was about to start as friends Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founded a startup company called Apple Computer. A year later they unveiled the Apple II, the first computer to use colour graphics. The computer revolution moved quickly: 1981 saw IBM’s first PC, and in 1984 Apple released the Macintosh, the first computer system to use a graphical user interface (GUI). The Macintosh also bore the first mouse, which would forever change the way people interact with computers. In 1985, Microsoft released the first version of its Windows operating system. That same year, Commodore released the Amiga, a machine which many experts consider to be the first multimedia computer due to its advanced graphics processing power and innovative user interface. The Amiga did not fare well over the years, though, and Windows has become the standard for desktop computing.
Both Windows and the Macintosh operating systems paved the way for the lightning-fast developments in multimedia that were to come. Since both Windows and Mac OS handle graphics and sound – something that was previously handled by individual software applications – developers are able to create programs that use multimedia to more powerful effect. One company that has played an important role in multimedia from its very inception is Macromedia (formerly called Macromind). In 1988, Macromedia released its landmark Director program, which allowed everyday computer users to create stunning, interactive multimedia presentations. Today, Macromedia Flash drives most of the animation and multimedia you see on the Internet, while Director is still used to craft high-end interactive productions.

Multimedia Usage/Application

1. Commercial uses

A large amount of the previous and modern electronic media used by graphic designers and commercial artists is multimedia. Exhilarating demonstrations are used to effectively grasp and retain the attention when advertising. Interoffice communications and business to business communications are usually made by creative services firms for innovative multimedia presentations rather than simplistic slide shows in order to elaborate on ideas or make training more exciting.

2. Entertainment and fine arts

Multimedia is used heavily in the entertainment industry, particularly to create special effects for animations and movies (3D animation, for instance). One of the current popular pastimes is even multimedia games and there are also software programs available both online and as CD ROMs. Certain video games even use multimedia features to enhance to entertainment factor. Additionally, there is now interactive multimedia. Interactive multimedia refers to applications that enable users to actively participate rather than simply sitting there like an inanimate object.
3. Education

Edutainment refers to the mixture of education with entertainment, particularly multimedia entertainment. People use multimedia in education to create computer-based training courses (CBTs) and also to reference books, for instance, encyclopaedias. A CBT allows for a user to scroll through and array of text as well as presentations relating to a certain topic, and related illustrations in numerous information formats.

4. Industry
The industrial sector uses multimedia to help in the presentation of information to superiors, co-workers and shareholders. Employee training is also an exceptionally helpful trait of multimedia in this sector as well as advertising and selling products all over the globe through virtually limitless web-based technology.
How Multimedia has affected the Society

1. Using Multimedia in public places has generated a lot of advertising as well as ways to communicate through posters and even videos and music. This helps businesses, inform people of their businesses effectively expanding their consumer base.

2. Impact of multimedia in education:
In the field of e-learning:
E-learning is on its way to becoming the most cost cutting and effective way of learning. Multimedia plays a very important role for communication, in the field of learning from the Internet. For example, in order to learn a computer program, we must have known its basics. The multimedia instruction which is in the form of website or tutorials can be regarded as the most important medium of communication. The distance learning is the best scenario for this type of learning method. The e learning is fast as compared to conventional chalk and talk method. The instruction that is delivered through tutorials or websites, etc. contains at least two mediums. The visual part, which is video, and the audio part, which is the human voice. These are the two parameters when used together, and this method gives the same, perhaps more impact as the teacher to the student teaching system does.

3. The impact of multimedia on children under the age of 10:
This age of the child is also considered as the most learning age of life. The child grips onto nearly everything he/she sees or listens to from the environment. Therefore, multi medium instruction method surely enhances the capability of a child’s cognitive learning (the function based on how a person processes and reasons information), reactions on the environment, understanding more complex concepts than before. But this method works in a positive way if and only if when the literature that is delivered to a child is positive.

4. The impact of multimedia on teenagers:
This age can be considered as the character and personality building age of a human. The data, which is perceived by a human from his/her environment, is passed through a phase that is called analysis. This analysis is done on the basis of previous learning, past experiences, moral values and personal interests. So, the medium of instruction and the method of delivery should be more responsible, because at this age any change that occurs in human’s personality would be permanent. The nature of information and number of mediums can highly alter the personality and behaviour. If a human views and listens to all the positive and motivational behaviour in the medium of information, then he or she would work positively and will give a positive impact on society. But if the method and the nature of information is negative, then the behaviour would be aggressive, inconsistent, unmotivated and all his/her ability, learning capacity everything will decline.
How Multimedia Helps Students at School

• Multimedia offers students the opportunity to represent and express their prior knowledge.
•It allows students to function as designers, using tools for analysing the world, accessing and interpreting information, organizing their personal knowledge, and representing what they know to others.”
•Multimedia applications engage students and provide valuable learning opportunities.
•Multimedia empowers students to create and design rather than “absorbing representations created by others.
•It encourages deep reflective thinking, through its use of animation, text and sound.
•Multimedia creates personal meaningful learning opportunities.

Advantages of Multimedia

1. Creativity – It brings more life to discussions.

2. Variety – It caters all types of learners.

3. Cost-effective – Multimedia mostly requires only a one-time purchase of devices and software, which can be used unlimited times thereafter.

4. Trendy – The current trend of culture leans toward technology, and a great number of resources are being made available for different media formats.

Disadvantages of Multimedia

1. Accessibility – Multimedia requires electricity to be operated, which may not be available in some rural areas or may not be consistently available due to shortages and blackouts.

2. Distracting – As a result of its eye-catching ability multimedia has a tendency to distract people from the lesson being taught.

3. Costly:

•It is expensive producing multimedia because it uses more than one medium
•Production of multimedia requires an electronic device, which may be relatively expensive.
•Multimedia is highly dependent on electricity which contributes even more to its costs.

4. Time Consuming –The creation of multimedia is a long process.

Multimedia in school?
Broadband

Broadband is a high-capacity transmission technique using a wide range of frequencies, which enables a large number of messages to be communicated simultaneously.
In telecommunications, broadband is a wide bandwidth data transmission with an ability to simultaneously transport multiple signals and traffic types.
In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access that is always on and faster than traditional dial-up access.

The History of Broadband
Internet technology has been in existence for quite some time. For example, the earliest emails date back to the 1970s. This technology began to move into the mainstream during the 1990s. From that point, onwards it has developed into arguably one of the most significant technological innovations ever devised.
Back in those early days of making a connection via telephone dial-up, painfully slow connection speeds of 56k were common. Just compare an 8Mb connection, which gives us 8,000Kb, with that figure of 56Kb. In effect, we then had to achieve that connection using around 5% of the connection speed now available for today’s slowest broadband.
In such circumstances, downloading anything beyond text was a tortuous process. Given optimum connection speed, a single song of minimal audio quality (3.5MB) could be downloaded in around 10 minutes.
However, since all quoted speeds are ‘up to’, and not guaranteed, the actual duration might stretch to 30 minutes or even a matter of hours. Thus full-speed movie downloads took 28 hours, and low-speed downloads between three and five days – provided you were happy with a low-quality version (700MB).
Leaving aside the poor speeds, a dial-up connection also completely monopolised a telephone line. Simultaneous online surfing and normal telephone communication was just not possible over one single line. As a result, people were forced to either accept enormous inconvenience or invest in a costly extra line.
Then broadband arrived
Broadband was a breath of fresh air for the Internet in the new millennium. Since that time, the technology has continued to advance allowing users to enjoy both uninterrupted telephone usage and high-speed connections. Using modern broadband technology, a single line can carry both Internet and telephone data signals, thus faster speeds and simultaneous use is now a reality.
The arrival of broadband networks allowed much faster downloading of files, audio, and even TV programmes and movies. Consequently, a host of new media content became available online – YouTube, and similar media sites, would have been unimaginable via a 56k connection.
As with most technological innovations, broadband was costly at the outset, and thus slow to take off. However, with the advent of a more competitive pricing structure, internet service provider competition began in areas such as offering the fastest broadband speeds, unlimited broadband deals and broadband bundles.
Now that dial-up has been consigned to history, and the market is no longer monopolised by a handful of major players, consumers have the upper hand and can take advantage of some very competitive offers.
New broadband technology continues to emerge: 3G and 4G have brought reliable mobile connections, whilst new cable systems provider amazing connection speeds of up to 1000Mb.
4G network have been active since 2013 and have contributed to the revolution of the broadband market by delivering new performance standards rivaling fixed-line applications.

Advantages of Broadband
• Broadband Internet access is efficient because it accepts the internet to be connected to and for the phone line to be in use simultaneously. This is possible because, in the broadband connection, both the data line and phone line are separate.
• Checking emails is not an issue when connected with broadband. As long as the computer is on, automatic updates from the server will be done by checking for new emails, this is performed by the email application.
• Numerous users can simultaneously work as a result of broadband. In comparison to a dial-up connection, if several computers are used on the same bandwidth, speeds would be slow.
• Broadband connections are extremely reliable and additionally have digital connections. Due to the fast data transmission, there are fewer breaks. However, in dial-up modems, there are times where there is data overload.
• Download rates are fast, as a result of the connection being fast. Downloading content like movies and music is therefore faster in broadband connections.
• Broadband internet connections lack automatic time-outs or cut-offs of the connection.
• Broadband connection is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This has led to people referring to it as an “always on” connection. This increased amount of availability saves a lot of time especially when compared to the dial-up connection where a user has to connect by freeing a phone line then putting in a password before they can browse.
• With broadband connections users don’t have to keep track of the time they spend on the internet because they are charged according to a plan or the usage and not according to the amount of hours spent online.
• Wireless devices are able to use broadband internet access as well. This is especially handy for those who own cell phones, laptops or palmtops.

Disadvantages of Broadband

• Quick broadband connections are expensive, some costing up to twice the price of dial-up connections. This can be reduced significantly, however, if the user already owns a separate phone line for the internet that they can cancel.
• Having your computer on 24/7 is a huge security risk. Someone might gain unauthorised access to the computer especially if it is on most of the time. Luckily, there are many security features present on the market to deal with this specific issue.
• Having a broadband connection does not guarantee fast internet speeds despite it being able to increase the speed capability of the internet. The ISP’s server is really what the internet speeds are highly dependent on. If the ISP’s servers are slow and outdated, or over-burdened, this will negatively affect the internet connection.
• Lack of portability:
Broadband connections are fixed line networks which mean you have no freedom of carrying it around. This also means if you intend to be moving up and down you will need to purchase a separate dial up modem. This is because dial up modems are convenient since they are also portable.
How Broadband has affected Society
1. Broadband enables people to be online regularly because it’s constantly readily available through one or multiple networks. It gives people unlimited access.

2. Enriched communication. Through platforms such as emails and social media and with the aid of broadband, people are able to connect in real time. The improved communication allows for lowered costs and with improved efficiency making it especially important for long distance communication between individuals and businesses.

3. Improved experience. The high speeds of broadband internet has allowed for users to take advantage of digital resources that need fast internet, such as the viewing of video content, as well as access to interactive applications.

4. Economic growth. Research shows that significant job growth is a result of an increase in broadband availability. Not only does broadband positively impact GDP, but recent investments in broadband networks have generated thousands of jobs for those in the information and communications technology (ICT) and non-ICT industries, as researched by USTelecom.

5. Decreased costs. Broadband technology allows businesses to aid employee productivity as a result of increased communication through the use of tools like email. Additionally, business can get market intelligence at reduced costs as a result of broadband technology.

6. Social benefits. Broadband technology comes with a number of social advantages as well. It allows for us to connect with each other with increased ease, seek education and even develop our skills.

Broadband and Education
Broadband-enabled technologies are remodelling earlier conceptions of education and are proceeding to form a new, learner-centric education model. In detail, these technologies:
1. Increase the overall instruction’s effectiveness and enhance learning results by using more attractive and interactive activities.

2. Motivate innovation in the way education is portrayed, which has created a variety of hybrid strategies of teaching (e.g. blended learning).

3. Allow for a broader array of professional development opportunities for educators and adult learners.

4. Enhance access to quality education through distance learning programs, the presence of worthwhile content from any location and online learning modules.

5. Offer more individualized learning by allowing students to take part in activities. These video games and educational modules are targeted at improving or strengthening particular skills.

6. Make collecting and analysing large amounts of student data easier, and this accurately tracks student performance.

However, the impacts listed are highly dependent on the presence of vigorous implementation of the broadband and educational technologies both in and out of classroom. These impacts are also reliant on the passion and capability of educators to integrate these technologies into lesson plans.

Wireless

A wireless network refers to any kind of computer network that connects network nodes by using wireless data connections.
Wireless networking is method where businesses, telecommunication networks and even home installations bypass the expensive procedure of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between numerous equipment locations. Using radio communications is how wireless telecommunications networks are generally applied or managed. This implementation is done at a physical level (layer) of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model network structure.
Wireless communication is the transmission of data or even power between two or more points which are not connected together by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio. Distances can be short, like a few metres, with radio waves, for instance with televisions. They can also, however, be long like millions of kilometres, for example, for deep-space radio communications. It contains several types of portable, mobile and fixed applications, including wireless networking, two-way radios, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cellular phones. Additional examples of radio wireless technology include keyboards and headsets, garage door openers, cordless telephones and broadcast television.
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History of Wireless

Photophone
The world’s first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented and patented the photophone, a telephone that conducted audio conversations wirelessly over modulated light beams (which are narrow projections of electromagnetic waves). In that distant era, when utilities did not yet exist to provide electricity and lasers had not even been imagined in science fiction, there were no practical applications for their invention, which was highly limited by the availability of both sunlight and good weather. Similar to free-space optical communication, the photophone also required a clear line of sight between its transmitter and its receiver. It would be several decades before the photophone’s principles found their first practical applications in military communications and later in fibre-optic communications.
Electricity based wireless
Early wireless
A number of wireless electrical signalling schemes including sending electric currents through water and the ground using electrostatic and electromagnetic induction were investigated for telegraphy in the late 19th century before practical radio systems became available. These included a patented induction system by Thomas Edison allowing a telegraph on a running train to connect with telegraph wires running parallel to the tracks, a William Preece induction telegraph system for sending messages across bodies of water, and several operational and proposed telegraphy and voice earth conduction systems.
The Edison system was used by stranded trains during during the Great Blizzard of 1888 and earth conductive systems found limited use between trenches during World War I but these systems were never successful economically.
Radio waves
In 1894 Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless telegraph system using radio waves, which had been known about since proof of their existence in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz, but discounted as communication format since they seemed, at the time, to be a short range phenomenon. Marconi soon developed a system that was transmitting signals way beyond distances anyone could have predicted (due in part to the signals bouncing off the then unknown ionosphere). Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to this form of wireless telegraphy.

Advantages of Wireless Networking
Installing a wireless network rather than a wired one has several advantages, for example adaptability, mobility and cost effectiveness.
Wireless networks are reasonably cheaper in comparison to wired networks as a result of their lack of cables between computers. Additionally, since there is no equipment, long term costs are reduced due to less maintenance. Wireless networking’s lack of cables also possesses a safety improvement as there will be no trip hazard caused by trailing wires. Furthermore, since most wireless networks are plug-and-play, it reduces costs once more as there will be no need for vendor installation and this also eliminates redundancy in case of a crash.
Wireless networking is also versatile and very portable; it is able to adjust to most situations and requirements. Wireless networks are simple to assemble as well as dissemble which is very ideal for most people, especially those in leased spaces or temporary homes/worksites. Another advantage is that wireless networking also allows for a network to be set up where regular wires cannot reach, such as in one’s garden in a home. Additionally, if essential, access points can be used to extend the wireless signal range. Wireless networks are able to provide simple and fast access to the internet and this is especially handy as portable workstations are becoming popular. Installation of additional components such as VoIP (Voice over internet protocol) is very stress-free on this type of network and without the requirement of configuring one’s computer.

Disadvantages of Wireless Networking
Since wireless networking is a rather new and unpredictable method of networking, unreliability and security can be a problem when dealing with this type of network.
There is limited bandwidth on wireless networks; this translates to them not supporting video teleconferencing (VTC). Additionally, its expandability is limited due to the absence of available wireless spectrum for it to occupy.
If not maintained or even installed properly, Wireless networks can be a security risk. Using this type of network considerably increases the ease of access to the network by potential hackers as a result of the network not needing any physical components to connect up to it, for instance cables. Only a wireless adapter is needed. And if the network has no password, which means it can be accessed by anyone easily, this scenario is worsened.
Due to the uncontrollable presence of external physical factors such as dust storms or flying objects such as aero planes flying over fields or even fog, there is an increased chance of wireless networks jamming and of interference with the network. The band of air that wireless networks transmit signals on can become overloaded if a large number of people in the same area use wireless networks.

Applications of Wireless

1. Mobile telephones
One of the best-known examples of wireless technologies is the mobile phones. They are also referred to as cellular phones and have recorded more than 4.6 billion subscriptions over the globe as of the end of 2010. They use radio waves from signal-transmission towers to enable users to engage in conversation through the phones from several locations worldwide. They can be used within range of the mobile telephone site used to house the equipment required to transmit and receive the radio signals from these instruments.

2. Data communications
Wireless data communications allow wireless networking between desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers, cell phones and other related devices. The several available technologies vary in local availability, coverage range and performance, and in certain circumstances users employ multiple connection types and switch between them using connection manager software or a mobile VPN to handle the multiple connections as a secure, single virtual network. Supporting technologies include:
• Wi-Fi is a wireless local area network that enables portable computing devices to connect easily with other devices, peripheries, and the Internet. Wi-Fi approaches speeds of some types of wired Ethernet. Wi-Fi has become the major standard for access in private homes, within offices, and at public hotspots. Several businesses even charge customers a monthly fee for service, while others have begun offering it for free in an effort to increase the sales of their goods.

• Cellular data service offers coverage within a range of 10-15 miles from the nearest cell site. Speeds have increased as technologies have advanced, from earlier technologies such as GSM, CDMA and GPRS, to 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.

• In largely rural areas or remote locations, mobile Satellite Communications may be used where other wireless connections are unavailable. Satellite communications are particularly important for transportation, aviation, naval and military use.

• Wireless Sensor Networks are accountable for detecting noise, interference, and activity in data gathering networks. This allows us to detect important quantities, monitor and collect data, formulate clear user displays, and to perform decision-making functions

3. Peripheries
Periphery devices in computing can also be linked wirelessly as part of a Wi-Fi network or directly by optical infer-red, Bluetooth or Wireless USB. Originally these units used bulky, highly local transceivers to mediate between a computer and a keyboard and mouse; however, more recent generations have used small, higher-quality devices. A battery, powers computer interface devices such as a keyboard or mouse, and send signals to a receiver through a USB port by the way of an optical or radio frequency (RF) receiver. A RF design makes it possible to expand the range of efficient use, usually up to 10 feet but distance, physical obstacles, competing signals, and even human bodies can all degrade the signal quality. Concerns about the security of wireless keyboards arose at the end of 2007, when it was revealed that Microsoft’s implementation of encryption in some of its 27 MHz models was highly insecure.

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Impact of Wireless Technology on society

Cellular Phones
The ability to reach people at any time and from anywhere is the most noticeable effect of wireless communication. Prior to mobile phones (cellular phones), if you called someone’s desk at their office and they weren’t around you would leave a message. However, with cellular phones, you can reach anyone that has a cellular phone even during non-work hours. Problems can be reduced if key employees are reached quickly before the issue becomes major. This continuous availability, on the other hand, can also be a distraction especially during work hours and an annoying interruption during personal-time.

Wireless Networking
Due to wireless communication installation and maintenance of hardware in large organisations has been made easier for information technology departments. Prior to wireless networking, the connection of PCs, printers and several other devices with the company network needed cables to be run at long lengths throughout the entire facility and this required access to ceiling and sub-floor spaces. Not to mention one faulty wire could lead to hours of work in an attempt to detect fault. Wireless networking, on the other hand, is incredibly simpler to configure, only requiring configure repeaters installed to lengthen the signal all over the office. Wireless networks are additionally simpler to connect to, as long as you have the password the device in use can connect without prolonged setups or configurations.
Radio Frequency Identification

Business logistics have also been influenced by wireless technology. RFID (Radio frequency identification) tracks items using small tags, similar to a barcode which records data about a product. However, RFID allows for multiple items to be scanned at once, wirelessly. It is able to store more information in comparison to other identification methods and does not require line-of-sight.
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Digital Television and Video
Digital television, also known as DTV, is the transmitting of video and audio through digitally multiplexed (involving several elements in an intricate relationship) and processed signal, dissimilar to the channel divided and entirely analogue signals used by analogue television. DTV is able to support several programs in the same channel bandwidth. It is a ground-breaking service which signifies first substantial evolution in television since the colour TV in the 1950s.
It is the use of digital and not orthodox analogue methods, to transmit television signals.
This technology encodes television programs into a digital format in order to transmit them. DTV has superior sound quality and further enhanced picture resolutions in comparison to the prior TV systems. DTV can also be compressed. Digital video refers to the probable future manipulation, storage and apprehension of digital format.
History
Digital TV’s roots have been tied very closely to the availability of inexpensive, high performance computers. It wasn’t until the 1990s that digital TV became a real possibility.
In the mid-1980s as Japanese consumer electronics firms forged ahead with the development of HDTV technology, and as the MUSE analogue format proposed by NHK, a Japanese company, was seen as a pacesetter that threatened to eclipse U.S. electronics companies. Until June 1990, the Japanese MUSE standard—based on an analogue system—was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration. Then, an American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.
In March 1990, when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analogue signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images. Then, to ensure that viewers who did not wish to buy a new digital television set could continue to receive conventional television broadcasts, it dictated that the new ATV standard must be capable of being “simulcast” on different channels. The new ATV standard also allowed the new DTV signal to be based on entirely new design principles. Although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard, the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements.
The final standard adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios, or lines of resolution. This outcome resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry (joined by some broadcasters) and the computer industry (joined by the film industry and some public interest groups) over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—is superior. Interlaced scanning, which is used in televisions worldwide, scans even-numbered lines first, then odd-numbered ones. Progressive scanning, which is the format used in computers, scans lines in sequences, from top to bottom. The computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not “flicker” in the manner of interlaced scanning. It also argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the Internet, and is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice versa. The film industry also supported progressive scanning because it offers a more efficient means of converting filmed programming into digital formats. For their part, the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the highest quality pictures then (and currently) feasible, i.e., 1,080 lines per picture and 1,920 pixels per line. Broadcasters also favoured interlaced scanning because their vast archive of interlaced programming is not readily compatible with a progressive format.

Advantages of Digital Television

• You can access digital radio from your TV

• Less bandwidth is consumed by the digital broadcast in comparison to the analogue one. This effectively frees up space for more wireless networks, which will in turn improve communication services.

• It offers a lot more channels than the outdated analogue.

• Digital broadcast provides better sound and picture quality. Additionally, high definition will be able to be broadcasted by certain TV stations. Improving the experience, you receive from watching TV due to the enhanced sound.
Disadvantages of Digital Television
• The requirement for special equipment is digital television’s biggest disadvantage. The only thing you needed for the old analogue broadcast was an antenna. However, a digital converter box will be needed for the new digital broadcast.

• The loss of signals is another disadvantage of the digital broadcast. When the weather was bad and you were using the old analogue broadcast, bad picture quality is what people got used to. With the new digital one, however, all channels will be lost entirely. A black screen will be present rather than simply bad picture quality; this is made worse when you are viewing your favourite show. This translates to perfect TV signal being a requirement at all times because no picture will be received otherwise.

• It can be really uncomfortable using poorly designed “electronic program guides”, which are also referred to EPG.

The Impact of Digital Television on the Global Market

A number of challenges are being faced by the digital TV market despite the industry expanding when compared to satellites and terrestrial broadcasts. It is vital to address the issues in order to deliver worldwide solutions for television makers, trying to incorporate the digital and analogue functions into one design.
The demand for High Resolution TV displays has been inspired by the mandated move to High definition television (HDTV). Cable ready high definition television will soon replace digital cable boxes.
While MPEG2 (MPEG-2 is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems) continues to dominate the compression technology, the new coding schemes including MPEG4 and Windows Media 9 are beginning to unwrap the possibility more HD channels available over satellite that are integrated with latest modulation formats and inexpensive high density PVRs.
The modern interactive applications will demand significantly reduced costs for a significantly increased performance in the receivers of digital television as a result of the newest software standards, for example Java and multimedia home platform. And a novel silicon generation is driven in turn.
Microsoft is maintaining a keen eye on the digital television market with its XP media centre, together with these developments. They are doing this by coming together with makers of PCs to produce home serves additional to partnering with telecom operators for the IDTV box also known as the integrated digital television.
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Opportunities Created by the Information Age
Presenting Information in Different Ways
ICT offers an array of features that effectively enable us to display information in thrilling and eye-catching ways. For instance, the information may comprise of graphs, charts, original text styles, colour and graphics. Additionally, we are able to manipulate data from a number of sources thanks to the windows environment which allows us to navigate between applications. We are able to deliver documents with professional appearances and which are filled with worthy content due to these features. For example:
Videos
Due to their ability to bring together a varied collection of representation, videos are a dominant method of communicating information.
Text, sound and images can all be included in video footage and they are brought together to present information in an entertaining but informative manner.
Videos may be used to communicate information to staff members/shareholders regarding plans for the future or how well the company is doing. They have also been used to train staff in companies for a long time, with the purpose of teaching them a new skill or simply acquainting them with company policies.
Schools and colleges make use of video to educate students and provide information about specific topics.

Advantages of Using Video

• Multi-sensory – include auditory and visual information.
• Can be used for training – people can view a skill and proceed to learn it
• In a short period of time, a lot of information can be conveyed.
• People with poor literacy skills can still access the information
• Videos can be replayed as many times as required as well as stopped and started.
Disadvantages of Using Video

• Requires specialist equipment–computer, television and video player
• A fast connection and plenty of bandwidth is needed if viewing is done online.
• Some specialist videos are expensive to purchase

Sharing Information Quickly
The information age has immensely improved how we share information, similar to its contribution in the presentation of data. The whole sharing process is made stress-free as files are stored in the digital format. For example, huge files can be sent across the globe, through email. This simplifies collaborative work as colleagues can view footage such as important documents, video, images or even sound files within short periods of time.
How Email Works
The SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server is much like a post office, which checks your address and postage and discovers where to send your mail. However, it doesn’t comprehend domains. The SMTP server then contacts a Domain Name System server because domains are kind of nonfigurative. The DNS server in this case is more of a phone or address book for the internet; it translates domains like “sikarra.com” to an IP address like “67.832.32.54.” Then, it finds out if that domain has any mail exchange or “MX” servers on it and makes a note of it. This is similar to your post office referring to maps to locate precisely where your mail is supposed to go, contacting that area’s local post office, and checking to see if the recipient has a mailbox or P.O. Box to receive mail.
After the SMTP server gathers the appropriate information, the message is sent from that server to the target domain’s mail exchange server. This server is referred to as a Mail Transfer Agent (MTA). The MTA chooses where exactly to put the mail, similar to the way the recipient’s post office works out how to best get it delivered. Then, the recipient goes and collects the mail, usually using a client that works via POP (Post Office Protocol) or IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).
POP – In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection.
IMAP – is a standard email protocol that stores email messages on a mail server, but allows the end user to view and manipulate the messages as though they were stored locally on the end user’s computing device(s).
Greater Interaction with Others and Organisations

The opportunity for greater interaction with organisations as well as people is another opportunity generated by the information age. Once upon a time, in order for an advertisement to be printed, it first had to be printed by the marketing companies in full colour, and sent, by air, to the client. The wait for the client review panel to authorise the advertisement would then begin, and when the go ahead was given, the advertisements would then be printed out. If the client had two offices in separate parts of the world, that would both need to review the advertisement, then the process would be greatly extended. This process today is cut short due to PDFs (portable document formats) and email attachments.
Thanks to the surge in the use of the internet a large number of businesses have started off online and then moved to the high street or they have moved from the high street to having a web shop as well. This allows the business to increase their customer base. Businesses can contact each other without having to travel to meet a client; as an alternative they can just contact each other through the use of email or other means of internet messaging. This provides the company with more access to others and is able to help create more business opportunities. A mass of people can use the internet to review something they are interested in, and with the contact of others, you can rapidly collect an overview of something. For example, amazon allows people to review a product after purchase to allow you to share your views with other possible buyers. There are a lot of rewards to having this ability to quickly contact people, as it reduces work, effort and stress. If a business puts in the determination to interact online, more people will adore the business as its web presence shows it is passionate, if the web presence is high, people will see the effort being put into the site advertisements, and it gives a great example of the way the business will be viewed. This allows a business to increase its knowledge around the world by interacting with different people and businesses.
Businesses being able to grow hastily and simultaneously make more people conscious of their business, is another benefit of having larger interaction. However, appealing to the wrong crowd is a disadvantage and the internet is global, which means everyone and anyone can take a peep at who you’re socializing with. This, sadly, could lead to the fall of the company, in severe cases. Blogging websites are a good example of interacting with other companies and people. These websites allow people to share information with others regarding whatever subject they find interesting. People can also interact with you through comments on your blogs, giving their criticisms and opinions.
Video Conferencing allows you to view someone on a device such as a laptop, phone etc. and be able to communicate to them. It is fast and cheap as long as you have Wi-Fi. Video Conferencing is particularly good for businesses as now they do not need to constantly keep travelling to different places to converse certain matters with a company, instead they can discuss it over a video chat. It is similarly good for people who have relatives who live far away.
A disadvantage of video conferencing is that there is sometimes a time delay when speaking to another person which can lead to difficulties when trying to speak to someone.
Virtual Communities, where people are brought together via the Internet
A social network of individuals who interrelate with one another through certain social media, possibly crossing political and geographical boundaries for the purpose of pursuing mutual goals or interests is what is referred to as a virtual community. Several of the main virtual communities are functioning under social networking services, they are online communities.
The internet along with its appearance has carried with it a range of ways to communicate, for example news groups, email, forums, blogs and chat rooms. All these services enable people to communicate more effectively and they all bring people as well as groups, together. There may be a family, for instance, that has a child with a disability who needs guidance of a specialist group from members all over the globe that can support over a dedicated website. People can post as well as receive messages relating to their distresses and queries by using the electronic noticeboards on these specialist groups. On the internet, special interest groups on a large number of topics, ranging from the windows operating system to coin collection are accommodated for. People interact electronically on these specialist websites for the purpose of discussing topics they similarly find interesting.

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Advantages of Virtual Communities

1. Media is not “fixed”
These communities are diverse and flexible since the media which is used is not fixed.
2. Hides disability, gender, race, sexual orientation etc.
The virtual community’s anonymity characteristic is one of its greatest advantages. One can simply filter the personal information they intend to share in this community. Information can be shared how people would like it to be, allowing people to be seen in the image of their preference as a member of the virtual community.
3. There are no built-in opinion limitations.
As long as the regulations specific to each community are followed, anybody is free to do what he/she would like to do within these communities. ?
Mobile Technologies that are blurring the distinction between home and work

The technology used for cellular communication is what is referred to as mobile technology.
The size of the microchips embedded in the core of ICT devices and computers is reducing. This is resulting in the mobility of formerly “desk-bound” computer systems. State-of-the-art batteries with augmented capacity and longevity, and highly resilient materials including plastics and super-light metals are now being produced in large enough quantities to make them an economic option for use in ICT equipment. Mobile technologies are moving forward at rapid rates additionally due to the now present “need” to be mobile rather than desk-bound. Due to mobility, technologies/ICT equipment can now easily be brought from the workplace to home and vice versa. And this development of mobile technologies is effectively blurring out the distinction between work and home life.
Mobile technology has essentially altered the relationship between life at work and life at home. People now feel the need to be “always on” and “always connected” in the world we live in. Adding to this thinning distinction between work and home life is the ubiquity of the mobile phone. For most people, the activity they start the day with is reaching for their mobile phone when they wake up – which also acts as their alarm clock – and checking their emails for anything work related. This is all before the day’s first “good morning”.
Working from home has undoubtedly been made simpler by the presence of mobile technologies. This comes as a result of the new ground-breaking uses and growing qualities of the smartphone. This makes it easier to complete particular tasks in comparison to otherwise travelling to work, starting up a computer, and this is worsened if the computer is a rather old one in which booting up will take extensive periods of time. A smartphone can be used to perform the same tasks that would’ve otherwise been done on a computer and if the user can operate the smartphone with the right efficiency, the job can even be done at a faster rate. This makes travelling to work in order to complete tasks unneeded. Permitting for less time to be spent at the office and only going there is required. Carrying a lot of your personal stuff around, however, brings with it a certain level of distraction despite it making people work at faster paces and allowing for them to feel secure. An advantage of mobile technologies is it portability which allows for work to be carried out anywhere. Anywhere, however, also includes home, which is sadly blurring out the distinction between home and work.
Disadvantages
• Motivating yourself to work from home is very difficult.
• Social skills may be lost due to a loss in social contact.
• There are a large number of distractions in the home environment, e.g. children or pets
A Self-Service Environment
The way we learn and even the way we purchase items has been altered due to ICT. Consumers carry out activities and transactions on their own, it has effectively created a self-service culture. The activities include learning, shopping, and banking. An example would be the petrol pump which has become automated as people can pay using their debit or credit cards at the pump itself, without having to travel to the service till to carry out this transaction. Goods can be purchased at particular supermarkets by scanning items all on our own and also paying for the items at the same terminal with which we scanned the items. Additionally, the number of online shoppers is rapidly increasing as internet shops saves time and is often cheaper. It is also possible to learn through the use of interactive materials without the need for face to face interactions with human teachers.
Examples of online tasks that people can do for themselves over the Internet:
1. Shopping

A wide array of goods can now be purchased from commercial websites. The goods are usually delivered after a few days to the consumer’s doorstep and are paid for using debit or credit cards.

2. Banking
A large number of banking tasks are now able to be done online, for example, arranging mortgages and loans, requesting a new cheque book, creating new accounts, making payments, transferring money and viewing bank statements.
3. Booking
Holidays can be booked online – also travel tickets, cinema or theatre seats.
Theatre seats can be booked online- as well as holidays, travel tickets or cinema tickets. Much like the usual e-commerce websites, the internet also provides websites which enable users to carry out every feature of buying a product except buying a product. For instance, certain services, known as “click and collect” services allow for a user to order an item and collect it from a local store and sometimes, the consumer does not have to leave the comfort of their car since drive thru systems have been generated to minimize the time taken to own a product; as a result, there is no trip to the store that leads to disappointment if the wanted item is not available. Due to their minimal upkeep, self-service services are becoming increasingly common; they also lead to increased profits for the companies that own them. For example, eBay (an American multinational corporation and e-commerce company) has changed the second-hand market and has declined the car boot sale: why wake up at 7pm on a bank holiday Monday to sell your undesirable good to a limited market, when you can take an image and let the buying come to you in the form of buy it now or buy placing a bid. These self-service websites have therefore permitted an increased number of people to create their own businesses. Additionally, they allow people to sell their products to a wider market, which is a big advantage.
Business Opportunities, Large and Small
Companies, in the direct reply industry, sell to customers that watch television advertisements and make purchases of goods over the telephone. Consumers tend to be close to a smartphone, television, tablet or computer. This allows for a large number of ways to get to consumers. The direct response world definitely has an interdependent relationship between the internet and television. Past making online purchases, 70 percent of consumers who watch commercials end up going to the internet for more information. The information age allows businesses to effectively capture the attention of potential consumers by providing business with the opportunity to broaden their perspective.
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Issues and Challenges Arising from the Information Age
Knowing the challenges and issues that are apart or even brought about by the information age is just as important as knowing the advantages.
The need for us to all be lifelong learners in a world of change
Majority of the technological progressions enable us to perform tasks more efficiently, however, this comes at a cost. It is vital that we keep learning through the years of our lives in order for us to sustain our knowledge and skill set, especially in this world we live in. And with technology moving forward so quickly, it is important that we continuously update our skills in order to partake fully in work as well as daily life. ICT effectively generates the need for people to become lifelong learners and it enables us to do this in a more effortless way – by supplying a list of diverse learning sources, for instance electronic books, the internet, interactive video and CD-ROM technology. Each technological development makes it essential for us to learn the skills that go with it. For some, it is challenging, while some see it as a thrilling opportunity.
Privacy Rights

The concept that one’s personal information is protected from public scrutiny is known as the right to privacy.
The information age brings the ability to transfer files at incredibly quick rates over long distances, along with its fast-moving technology. This ease of communication brings with it the need to respect and protect personal privacy – ours as well as other peoples. There are rights of privacy when using the internet as well as laws regarding information exchange. However, there are some people who try to invade people’s privacy and tear apart the rules. For instance, impostors who send parody emails pretending to be from the user’s bank and request people to reveal their personal information including account numbers. These people are trying to invade people’s wallets and not just their privacy.
Privacy is the subject of literally thousands of scholarly and popular books and articles. Despite this great effort, the old challenge of protecting civil liberties while also providing public safety, including cyber security, remains a critical question, especially in the Information age. Civil libertarians push for preserving Internet freedom, while many countries are increasingly anxious to protect critical national infrastructure, stop cyber spying and cybercrime, and even prepare for cyber war. But does this inevitably mean the end of anonymity for Internet users? Not necessarily. According to Colonel Charles Williamson, “each nation has to strike a balance between cyber security and civil rights, especially privacy.” How nations accomplish this balancing act will go a long way in determining the extent of national regulation over cyberspace, as well as ultimately defining privacy in the Information age.

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Copyright and Legislation

Copyright is a lawful right formed by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work, exclusive rights for its use and distribution.

ICT is making particular items, such as books and films, extremely portable as they are stored in digital format. However, it is extremely easy to transfer files over the internet illegally despite the information being protected by copyright. This is also true for music CDs. When people created the CD format, it wasn’t known that soon majority of the homes were going to be fitted with writable CD systems. This has effectively enabled people to produce illegal copies of CDs effortlessly and rapidly. And due to MP3 files now being largely available, simply clicking “Save As” will capture a file from the internet and place it on your hard drive in seconds.

Impact on Employment

Several areas with employment have seen an increase in unemployment due to the information age is presence. An example would be warehouses that have become controlled by computers and only need a few staff which results in a large number of staff members being made redundant and losing their jobs. Production lines that have introduced robots in an attempt to reduce costs in the long run have effectively made robots replace human workers which increasingly reduces employment further. Additionally, some jobs altogether due to the information age, for instance, marking multiple choice papers since computers can perform this task more accurately and efficiently now.
The Digital Divide

The digital divide causes a noteworthy issue in many struggling parts of the world. The western part of the world has the predominant amount of internet access in the world, Europe, the United States and Northern Asia, while in less developed parts of the world like Northern Asia, Africa and Southern Asia access is more limited. These less developed countries cannot afford to pay the initial start-up cost to be able to invest into technology to allow their nation to have as well as maintain access to the internet. This puts the less developed countries at an economic and competitive disadvantage and this impacts society on many levels. A country not having access to the internet is unable to teach ICT skills in schools. They cannot take advantage of the vast amount of information present on the internet. Additionally, with a lack of ICT skills the people of these countries cannot compete at an international level.
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Life in the Information Age
ICT affects the way people conduct their lives, whether it’s their professional, personal or social lives. It impacts their working styles, the way they communicate, education, the way they entertain themselves or spend their leisure time even tasks like shopping and banking are affected, as they can all be done from a remote location. These impacts on people’s lives are undoubtedly distinct, but these impacts are not all positive.
Working Styles
How ICT has affected working styles
Computers within businesses were not always as common as they are now. Prior to computers, typewriters were considered the advanced technology with some of them being electric (not electronic as people tend to mistake) typewriters. However, majority of them were actually mechanical ones which operated by pushing a letter, which lay on the end of a mechanical arm, onto a ribbon, usually an ink ribbon, and then onto a paper which would then produce an imprint of the struck letter onto the paper. A major disadvantage of typewriters was noticed when a mistake was made or when adjustments were required since this meant the document had to be typed all over again from the beginning.

Computers in the Office

The desktop machines dependability amidst its arrival meant that it began replacing the typewriter. This resulted in office typists being required to learn new more diverse skills. As less and less typists became sought after most people expected to lose their jobs. However, computers contained a large number of varied uses and all of them necessitated a different, specialist skill set.
Spreadsheets started being used for modelling situations, accounting and analysing data and this created numerous jobs from data inputters to ICT Managers.
Another area that required specialist staff was the area of Databases and other management information systems (MIS).
Hardware and software engineers were needed to solve and prevent technical problems.
Additionally, the internet’s success carried along with it the need for programmers and web designers.
The amount of jobs that were to be produced was not accounted for when the prediction that a minimum of five million people would lose their jobs to computerization by the year 2000 was made in the 1980s. For instance, data input one of the most labour intensive yet critical areas of ICT. Mayhem within an IT system can be achieved by incorrect data input.
The predicted large unemployment was evaded as people in traditional offices were simply retrained to use the new technology since jobs and skills did change.
The cost of transport to, and using, the new technology (for example, support costs, equipment and maintenance) was increased; however, this measurement has to be made against the benefits with which it brings such as greater efficiency and accuracy.
“The Paperless Office” was another anticipation made by the IT experts upon the advancement of computer technology. This is not yet the case in most offices and some offices even generate more paper in comparison to the prior office style.
Email in the Office
Offices use emails to communicate on an informal level, for example:
• Conversations between colleagues

• Sending memos

• As a substitute for face to face conversations
Using emails to communicate over long distances is much faster and simpler than sending letters. However, using email has a disadvantage and its spam or junk mail. An enormous amount of spam can be received and this can be very frustrating cleaning out the trash in the inbox even with spam filters.
Mobile Phones and Work
Communication between an individual and their work can be achieved at all times with the help of the mobile phone. This allows businesses to claim more efficient and faster response times. A major disadvantage, however, is that the mobile phone allows employers to contact employees outside work time as well which intrudes their personal lives.

Laptops in the Office
As a result of the laptop’s portability a lot of employees are being given laptops rather than desktops since this will allow them to work both in and out of the office. Laptops capable of accessing wireless networks make things even simpler as the internet can be accessed anywhere where there is a wireless hotspot. A disadvantage, however, is that the difference between work and home life becomes clouded as people can be expected to be working all the time.

The working styles of people have changed dramatically thanks to the rapid boom of technology in recent years. Over 40 years ago no one would have believed that most people working in offices would be crouched behind a computer screen all day with their business being taken care of on the computer remotely.
Some jobs have been booming in demand for example the number of web designers and graphic designers is higher than ever. Thanks to Email or Voice calls, these jobs can now be done remotely from one’s home while communication is still done easily. Initially, graphic designers travelled to the client’s offices with pencils and pens ready to design or create a logo. Currently, graphic designers can create the intended project on the required software and email it to the client all while at home.

Advantages

The technological boom did not only affect the graphic designers. The advent of smart phones meant business people were now able to travel or exit the office while still being connected to work through the use of emails, they can also be contacted at any time. Employees of large businesses can be sort of monitored by their employers since they can be reached at any time to either authorize a task or to arrive to cover a shift. Additionally, the introduction of satellite navigations enables the quickest route to a destination but also allows the employer of a business to keep tabs on where employees with packages have been driving and the timeframe of the journeys, as some people may be taking time off to travel to their own required personal destinations.
ICT creates original ways to make effective use of human resources of both outside and in-house staffing with ICT. ICT has undoubtedly created a change in working styles for the majority of people, making working life more productive, efficient and in some cases in easier. Communication has become more effective in the work environment as a result of ICT due to its ability to be used anywhere and at any time. Individuals no longer have to be stuck behind their desks in order to carry out their work. There is now the ability to communicate with work while at home and this can be done through email or video conferencing.

Disadvantages
The change in working styles, however, also means people are less likely to spend more hours at their offices working and working from home can lead to a large number of distractions and most people often attend to their personal work while at home rather than giving 100% to their office work.

Laptops in the Office?
Communication

The change that communication has undergone as a result of the inclusion or improvement of ICT is a positive one. People are now able to communicate in various different ways whether it’s through a video call, regular phone call or SMS message. The previously available boundaries that restricted communication have been bypassed by ICT. Long distance communication with family and friends can now be achieved at very low fees and in some cases even for free. This increased impersonal communication has, however, made some people anti-social. Positively, the increased constant communication can also be viewed as a means to interact with people you otherwise could not keep in touch with.

Social Networks
Social networks can be regarded as one of the most revolutionary ICT services. Computers are becoming a norm in the common household; most people are joining social media, simply following in the footsteps of their friends that are already on them.
With social networks being used by majority of the new generation, people are able to meet new friends, search them on a social network then add them, making the social network look like a directory for people. With social networks now containing over three hundred million users, it’s hard to believe all this was created in only the last few years. People have used social networks to create smaller networks from the already large global network so that they can communicate with members of their school (for example). Work places have also adopted this technique which sees employees joining smaller networks to effectively produce a quick means of communications with colleagues.

Advantages
People are able to create networks of family, colleagues and friends on social networks and on these networks, they can interact with one another, communicate and even share media with each other. Social networks give people the chance to meet new friends by connecting people who share similar interests. For instance, if someone is interested in football, everyone in the network will be talking about the games that took place last night and players that were involved. Social networking allows individuals to interact with people from all over the world since most social networking is done over the web and this gives people the opportunity to learn about different cultures. Long distance does not affect social networks and that what makes them so special. The Atlantic and Pacific are not obstacles as people can still communicate regularly through social networks, making it similar to meeting up with friends after school or work.
In terms of businesses, social networks give you the opportunity to expand the business and meet new clients since most social networks allow you to post links to your website on your customizable webpage. The large number of social networks available makes it difficult to struggle finding one that pleases you. Additionally, since these sites allow you to post ads more people can be made aware of your business or maybe an event that you may be hosting. Another major advantage about social networks is that setting up an account or becoming a member comes at no cost. The only requirements available are filling in the form of user details. Once the form is filled, you are a member of the social network and can enjoy all the benefits it has to offer.

Disadvantages
• Time Consuming – Social networks can be very addictive and when someone is hooked a large number of hours can be spent behind the computer screen rather than behind a working desk. This can be very dangerous especially if important tasks have to be carried out or if deadlines have to be met because this will reduce the amount of time you have to get work done.

• Lack of Anonymity – Usually the information needed to be filled in includes your name, age, location and gender among other details that most people would consider private or would like to keep secretive. Placing this information online can be very risky and if the worst comes to worst could be the starting point for identity thieves.

• Scams and Harassment – Being present on these sites can leave you vulnerable to identity theft, cyber stalking, harassment and online scams. Most social networks, however, do take measures to make sure these cases do not take place but there is always a chance of it happening.

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Smart Phones
A mobile phone is a device with multifunctional tools that allows people to communicate by either text or sound over a network and get instant feedback or response. Cordless telephones vary from mobile phones since they only offer telephone service over a limited range for example within an office or a home. Most mobile phones now contain Wi-Fi (Wireless Internet) access and this gives them the ability to communicate with people through the use of social networking platforms. They also have web browsers which enable them to surf the internet from their mobile phones.
Majority of today’s smartphones are able to perform tasks that you normally associate with a desktop computer. Nearly every smartphone made from 2008 onwards has had Wi-Fi connectivity and a web browser available effectively allowing them to stream music, watch videos or even the news wirelessly and all through their mobile phones. Mobile phone technology has be travelling at lightning speed and the industry is now filled with phones which can perform computer-level tasks.
The way we keep in touch with people has been revolutionized by the smartphone. Other than sending someone an SMS or giving them a conventional phone call, you can reach them through a social network which they are on and their mobile phone will inform them of the message.

Advantages of Mobile Phones
Mobile phones are portable and this gives them the ability to be used from any location and at any time as long as there is an available network. Since mobile phones give you the ability to reach anyone who has one as well, you can inform people of your well-being and if need be, of your location. Calling emergency numbers, for instance 911, comes at no cost. Additionally, moments can easily be captured since most mobile phones now come with digital cameras as standard. Mobile phones are now one of the most essential devices to have and this has also been aided by it also having an MP3 player and internet browser which makes it a multipurpose tool that eliminates the need to carry more than one item.

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Disadvantages of Mobile Phones
• Highly dependent on availability of network
• Prolonged use of mobile phones can be a health hazard
• Most smartphones are expensive to purchase with some mid-ranged phones that have service contracts starting from $30+.
Laws on Mobile Phones
The mental distraction and divided attention given to the mobile phone while driving has significantly increased the amount of car related deaths and injuries. The use of handheld mobile phones has been banned while driving since 2003. People caught driving and using a mobile phone will have 3 points deducted from their driving license as well as being fined. Keeping conversations short or using hands-free devices has been advised in contrast to using the mobile phone.?
Education

We are now able to study at any time and from anywhere and without having to go to school or institutions thanks to the presence of technological developments. An effect of ICT’s presence is its introduction of a new innovative virtual environment of learning. Virtual classrooms are popping up in schools and institutions all over the world. The idea behind virtual learning is that it gives people the flexibility of taking a course from anywhere and at any time but still be able to work with professors and alongside other students in small communities with a wide range of courses to choose from. This concept is particularly remarkable for people in remote locations that are unable to take a course for reasons such as, there is no qualified teacher or there are not enough students.
A site requires the all of the components available in a standard learning environment for is to be instructional. These components include content and management. There are a large number of educational websites containing all sorts of features and appealing to be virtual classrooms by impersonating instructional destinations. However, upon reaching the website there is almost no instructional value. These specific learners are required to be self-motivated and responsible learners. Virtual classrooms are especially useful for people who aren’t in school as a result of particular obstacles. They can, however, study online and are welcome to a variety subjects to choose from and this still gives them a variation of qualifications.
Interactive Smart Boards

Interactive smart boards enable students to learn by interacting with the material of a certain lesson in a way that has been proven to be supportive to the student’s learning as well as advantageous. Due to all the types of media smart boards can present, inclusive of films and video clips as well as lecture notes, they are being used in a large number of academic institutes from as low as the primary section all the way to the top, in university. Additionally, interactive smarts boards use projectors and this means there’s no limit on how big the projection on the board can be.
A teacher can project a presentation onto a wall and they can make this presentation as large as they please even covering the whole wall if they like. However, if the projection is not onto an interactive white board then the projection will not be interactive. Additionally, smart boards are very cost effective. Despite the initial cost of the equipment being a bit pricey, once purchased there will no longer be the need to purchase any materials associated with stationary for the teacher. Furthermore, since the interactive board can be used as a type of output monitor, the institute will not need to buy any televisions for classrooms all that will be required is a somewhat cheap DVD player and it will be connected to the projector. The interactive smart has a large number of advantages to its name and it is because of this that it has been a global success.
However, majority of schools in the world do not have the interactive smart board installed because they can be rather expensive. Some schools in wealthy areas of the world do not have the interactive smart boards either. Much like most technology, they are susceptible to damages and breakages and these can pronounce them useless. They can also have technical failures much like any piece of technology and this could be very detrimental to any class that requires the smart board to study. Smart boards are also highly dependent on projectors and projectors are also an expensive piece of equipment also capable of breaking down and they do have a high maintenance cost if they become faulty. This is yet another issue that can arise causing the interactive smart board to be rendered useless.
ICT is capable of playing several roles in enhancing an effective learning environment. ICT can play the role of the teacher and clarify topics in certain subjects and explain in areas where there is confusion. It also nurtures versatile studies and analytical thinking by acting as a stimulant. Additionally, it provides well-made instructions that meet the needs of someone and in this case, acts as a mentor or guide. Learning is simplified since it is done through digital mode. Effectiveness of learning and teaching is improved, with the help of multimedia and this proves critical for differently abled learners, early learners and slow learners. Modern ICT tools duplicate formal learning experiences via virtual learning as well as delivering the required content. Extending the structure and services that go with formal education programs from the campus to learners is the purpose of virtual classrooms. Some teachers, however, become too dependent on the information searched from the web and forget that the information from the internet can be wrong too. Most of the information online is highly opinionated and not all factual. Teachers who are not highly dependent on the internet perform better than those who are dependent. For instance, if the information researched is not properly read through by the teacher and does contain incorrect information, the students will be at a big disadvantage. ?
Entertainment & Leisure

Plasma T.V

Plasma TVs are evolved televisions. They are TVs with flat screens and they come in an array of sizes. Due to their enhanced resolutions, they are much better than cathode ray televisions. They are also light weight, have a superior colour spectrum and wider viewing angles when compared to the cathode ray TVs. Since their introduction the have been widely popular due to these features. Plasma TVs are capable of being mounted on a wall or simply placed on a table and can be fitted nearly anywhere. Plasma TVs are capable of displaying HDTV, and this another reason for its popularity. They can also be used as a computer monitor, used for regular TV and for home video. Since they accept any sort of video format, they are multifunctional and can be used prolonged periods of time.

Advantages
• They do not take up a lot of space (since they can be mounted on a wall) and are light weight.

• They have better colour, resolutions, and viewing angles compared to the cathode ray TVs.

• They are a great form of entertainment since they can be used to watch live events.

Disadvantages
• They are expensive to purchase and due to the high risk of theft.

• Due to new and better models of the TV being created, such as LCD panels, the Plasma TV is soon becoming outdated.
Video Games Consoles

A video game console is an altered computer system or interactive entertainment computer that creates a video display signal capable of being used with a monitor or screen to display video games. It is computer device that outputs a visual image or video signal to display a video game which is played by one or more people.
ICT has allowed for several technologies to be combined to enable gamers to receive a fantastic experience from the video game being played. An example is the introduction of the internet to video games which enables gamers to play online with friends and even communicate verbally while playing by using VOIP and microphone headsets.
Advantages of Video Game Consoles
• There are portable Video game consoles that allow people to play while on the move.

• Some video game consoles can connect to the internet and have multiple users playing with each other over the online network.

• Games consoles come in many different forms to suit the different needs of different people.
Disadvantages of Video Game Consoles
• Video games become outdated quite quickly and this is bad because they are quite expensive to purchase and if people want to keep up with the trend and play the newest games they will be required to buy a new console every 2 or 3 years.
• Game Consoles are expensive with some costing about the same price as high-end computers.
• Game consoles can be very addictive especially due to the large number of games available, people may find it difficult stopping a game especially games containing story modes.
• Video game consoles are fragile due to the relatively cheap parts they are made out of.
• The games played on the game console are also expensive, standard games costing about $60.

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Banking and Shopping

ICT has affected the way we perform tasks in our daily lives. We can now carry out tasks on our own and remotely too. For instance, we can shop for products and carry out our bank transactions over the internet. This has caused people to consider the developed world a “self-service” one. Since the shopping is done online, shops are able to reduce prices due to their reduced costs, such as rent, and this is highly advantageous to the consumers since these online shops are able to reduce their prices as a result of their reduced costs.
Despite the advantages of carrying out transactions online, there are people who still deposit checks at their local bank branch and pay bills by mail. This is because it feels more secure working with a banker or an agent. They may shop online for home mortgages, loans or even life insurance but when the time involving money arrives, they feel more comfortable working with a banker they are familiar with and trust. Online banking does not change people’s money habits but simply gives them a more efficient and quicker way of carrying out their transactions.

Advantages
• Efficiency: All your bank accounts can be accessed simultaneously and remotely.

• Convenience: Online banking sites are open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week unlike a regular local bank branch which makes online banking more convenient.

• Transaction speed: Online banks carry out transactions faster than bankers or even ATM machines.

• Ubiquity: If you are away from home, maybe abroad, and a problem arises regarding your finances, you are able to log into your account from whichever location you are in and handle the issue online.

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Disadvantages of Online Banking
• Identity theft is a big problem when working online and online banks are a very big target. Online banking is usually secure but online banks are not immune to identity theft. And sadly, if your information is stolen, it could cost you hundreds or even thousands of dollars and the problem could take years to rectify.

• If you forget to check whether a bank’s deposits are FDIC-insured (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) and decide to go ahead and use the online bank, you could lose all your deposits if the bank goes under.

• Online banking is subject to the same business-day parameters as regular banking and not all transactions are immediate. This makes it very important for people to print out receipts when carrying out transactions online.
Disadvantages of Online Shopping
• There is a chance that the product purchased could get damaged on the way to the consumer and this could cause the consumer to lose out.

• Goods purchased can take a longer time to arrive at the consumers door step and this could be very frustrating if the consumer intended the gift to arrive on a specific date (for example, a birthday present).

• You are unable to inspect the good before it is purchased and this could be very critical for certain products especially if they arrive and are not what the buyer expected.

• Credit card information is usually required when purchasing goods online and this can cause security concerns.
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Employment Opportunities
When the advantages of computers were made aware to most companies, employees were expected to know how to use them. This affected the way people performed their working tasks.
When computers were introduced into the work areas:
• Jobs were created – people were required to create and manage the computers

• Employees had to be retrained – employees had to be trained to use the computers

• Jobs were lost – computers replaced human workers in some areas

Why businesses use ICT:

There are a large number of benefits associated with using computers in companies and businesses. And in the past few years these benefits have been too significant for business owners to neglect. For example:
Fewer working staff – a single computer can perform the tasks of several people and it can do these tasks simultaneously. This also saves costs (fewer wages).
Connectivity – businesses can conduct meetings in different countries and even share data and all this can be done over the internet, remotely, without leaving the office.
Less paper work – since most tasks are performed on the computer less amounts of paper work can be achieved.
Speed – Data can be processed, searched and even stored extremely quickly.
Volume – large amounts of data can be stored in small amounts of physical space.

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Effects of ICT on employment include:

• There is a greater requirement for highly trained ICT specialists.

• There is an increased amount of tele-working (working from home)

• Less need for “Labour intensive” workers

• Workers are required to be trained more regularly, to keep up with all the ICT changes.

• To achieve the same amount of work, fewer workers are needed.

• Factories have more automation (robots) performing tasks.
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Crime & Crime Prevention

CCTV (Close Circuit Television)
The all-round surveillance of today’s society was undoubtedly aided by the technological boom. This has been an incredible advantage for people and especially business owners who have been targets of crime and it has simultaneously resulted in a large number of CCTV cameras being purchased privately by people. The thought of reduced privacy has arisen as a result of this surveillance and statistics have shown that in more developed countries an average citizen is caught on CCTV cameras 300 times per day.

A 2005 survey by the Home Office also revealed that the presence of CCTV cameras in areas did not reduce the crime levels in that area by much, however, it did make the residents feel more secure.
There are a lot of advantages that come with setting up CCTV around an area for the society in that environment. The number one advantage being that it provides a safer environment where it is set up which reduces the money spent on other security measures such as security guards. Additionally, if there is a problem, the recordings taken could be used as evidence in court. Furthermore, crime can be deterred from criminals seeing the security cameras as it will be made easier for the police to identify the culprits.
However, CCTV is not only advantageous. There are certain disadvantages that come with CCTV. For example, most people would consider the cameras to be an invasion of privacy which would make these people feel awkward. Additionally, the crime levels in an area could go up if criminals notice that there are no cameras in that area. The government could also assume that an area with a large amount of CCTV present would not need that much police patrolling the streets. The value of one’s home could reduce, unluckily, if there are large amounts of CCTV cameras around the area as people could view this as an area that contains regular criminal activities.
Advantages
CCTV provides a safer environment even without the regular presence of the police. The recorded footage can be used as evidence in court in case of a criminal activity, the unrequired footage can simply be disregarded. CCTV cameras can deter crimes as most criminals would not continue with a crime upon realizing that they have been captured on camera and this additionally reduces the rate of crime.
Disadvantages
CCTV cameras being placed in a lot of areas would pose a threat to people’s privacy, due to them being constantly under surveillance and this would result in the society feeling uncomfortable and perturbed. Some areas may even go against the installation of CCTV cameras as they feel this will reduce the amount of police left patrolling the streets.
Chip and PIN

The “Chip and PIN” make the credit, which is close to invulnerable, even less vulnerable. This is in reference to the chip and 4-digit pin number which come with every card. This system replaces the historic signature transaction method. The signature method was able to be forged, but the PIN number cannot be forged as long as only the customer knows it.
Advantages
Money is made more difficult to steal with the presence of the chip an PIN. The chip being small allows for the credit card to be small which allows it to be portable and carried in the wallet. They highly reduce the risk of identity theft as they are close to impossible to forge, this means people and banks are at a much-reduced risk of losing money.
Disadvantages
The card has increased security due to the four-digit pin, as a result of this, if the pin is forgotten or incorrectly punched in, the card cannot be used. Additionally, if not safely guarded when entering the pin, onlookers can easily see the pin and access your account. In addition, someone with multiple accounts might find it difficult to remember the correct pin for was each card.

Tracking Devices
Due a large number of vehicles being stolen; tracking vehicles has become very popular in new cars. A vehicle tracker is a small device placed inside a car and is activated once the car is reported to the police as being stolen. Signals are then sent to the nearest police officers to pick up and follow until the vehicle is found. Mobile phones are also devices that can contain trackers. This type of tracking can be used similarly to find the device if the phone is reported stolen and this comes in handy for parents who place them in their children’s mobile phones to monitor the where about of their children. Additionally, taxi and delivery businesses use the tracking devices to monitor where their drivers are.
Tracking devices have significantly impacted our lives. From parents being able to track their children, in case of danger, through the trackers in their mobile phones to police officers using trackers to keep track of released criminals.

Advantages
• Tracking devices can help customers keep track of where their packages are.

• Employers of delivery businesses can use trackers to keep track of shipments and deliveries which maintains surety and relieves stress.

• Police can use trackers to bug vehicles and monitor them instead of physically following the criminal activity and this could save time and money.
Disadvantages
• Trackers disrupt people’s privacy.

• Trackers can be used by anyone that purchases one and they could land in the wrong hands, such as the hands of murderers tracking their next victims.