“ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM”
In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
K J INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, SAVLI
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, AHMEDABAD
K J INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, SAVLI
Mechanical Engineering Department
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “All Direction Fire Control System ” has been completed by
Under my guidance in fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2018-2019.
COLLEGE GUIDE: HEAD OF DEPARTMENT:
Mechanical Departmen Mechanical Engineering
K.J.I.T Savli K.J.I.T Savli
We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organization. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.
We are highly indebted to Mr. …………… for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project.
We would like to express our gratitude towards for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help me in completion of this project.
We would also like to express our special gratitude and thank to industrial persons, workers and supervisors for giving me such attention and time.
Our thanks and appreciation also goes to GTU in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us our with their abilities.
We also gratefully to all the collage staff and industrial workers who have directly or indirectly helped us during our project work.
We also thanks to our collage principle Mr.………………. our head of department or project coordinator Mr.……………. and all teachers to my department.
This project is useful in petrochemical refinery’s, storage yard, malls, industries, etc. this project have advantages of one single nozzle all direction fire control can be done. This project have next advantage is single electrical motor and single nozzle through all fired area control can be done with automatic and fastest. this system can do fast and automatic working so it is less fire hazards, human safety and protect industrial property efficient technology.
This project work titled ” All direction fire control system ” using Linear track, roller drives, conversion nozzle, high pressure water pump and flexible water pipes has been conceived having studied the difficulty in fire hazards. Our survey in the regard in several Petrochemical refinery’s, storage yard, industries, mall, etc. revealed the fact the mostly some difficult methods were adopted in control on fire hazards. The simple fire control system not work very fast. Like a fire extinguishers, fire hoses, fire sends buckets, etc. In our project these are rectified to control on fire hazards in all four directions very easily with use of single nozzle. Now the project has mainly concentrated on this difficulty, and hence a suitable arrangement has been designed. Such that the fire control system can be easily control on fire hazards. By actuating the direction control valve, the high pressure water pump goes to the roller drive on linear track.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sr. No. Description Page No.
1 CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION 7
2 CHAPTER: 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 10
3 CAHPTER: 3 HISTORY 15
4 CHAPTER: 4 TYPE OF FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM 18
5 CHAPTER: 5 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM 24
6 CHAPTER: 6 LENIAR MOTION TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS 27
7 CHATER: 7 DESIGN & CALCULATION OF GANTRY MECHANISM
8 CHAPTER: 8 MAIN COMPONENT OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM 34
9 CHAPTER: 9 ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM 44
10 CHAPTER: 10 CONCLUSIONS 45
11 CHAPTER: 11 FUTURE SCOPE 46
12 CHAPTER: 12 REFERENCES 47
30480030480000LIST OF FIGURES
Fig. No. Figure Name Page No.
2.1 Combustible Dust 10
2.2 Hot work process 11
2.3 Flammable liquids and gasses 12
2.4 Equipment and Machinery 13
2.5 Electrical Hazards 14
4.1 fire extinguishers 18
4.2 fire hose reels 20
4.3 fire hydrant systems 21
4.4 Automatic sprinkler systems 22
5.1 Design of all direction fire control system 24
5.2 Block Diagram Of All direction fire control system 26
6.1 Cartesian systems 27
6.2 Gantry systems 28
6.3 XY – Tables 29
8.1 Gear Motor 35
8.2 Roller 36
8.3 Linear Guide Way 37
8.4 Conversion Fog Nozzle 38
8.5 Flexible Fire Pipe 39
8.6 Pipe Drag 40
8.7 High pressure water pump 42
8.8 Body Structure 43
The purpose of this course is to increase the safety of building occupants and emergency responders by streamlining fire service interaction with building features and fire protection systems. The information in this manual will assist readers to better understand the needs of the fire service when they are called upon to operate in or near the built environment. The codes and standards governing buildings and fire protection systems are well understood by designers. However, many portions of these codes and standards allow design variations or contain only general performance language. The resulting flexibility permits the selection of different design options. Some of these options may facilitate fire service operations better than others.
The particular needs and requirements of the fire service are typically not known thoroughly by persons not associated with these operations. This book discusses how the fire service interacts with different building features and it suggests methods for streamlining such interaction. To provide the most effective protection, fire service personnel should be considered as users of building features and fire protection systems. While far less frequent than mechanical events or other failures, fire can cause greater destruction in terms of property loss, disruption of operations, injury, and death.
Designers routinely consider the needs and comfort of building occupants when arranging a building’s layout and systems. Within the framework of codes and standards, design options may be exercised to benefit a particular owner, tenant, or user. For example, a building code would typically dictate the minimum number of lavatories and water fountains. However, the location, distribution, and types of such facilities are left to the designer in consultation with the client.
The application of fire protection features in buildings is similar. For instance, a fire code may require the installation of a fire department connection for a sprinkler system or an annunciator for a fire alarm system.
Readers of this document must understand its limitations. It is meant as an introduction to the systems and equipment that first responders will interact with. For example, the topic of emergency radio communications can be extensive; however, its treatment here is limited to the equipment in buildings that can support radio communications. Likewise, there are entire standards and books written about sprinkler, standpipe, and fire alarm design. However, this document covers only portions of those systems with which the fire service interacts and suggests design details that will help streamline or support fire service operations.
Industrial ?re protection and prevention involves recognizing those situations that may result in an unwanted ?re, evaluating the potential for an unwanted event, and developing control measures that can be used to eliminate or reduce those ?re risks to an acceptable level. As is the case with any safety control measure, these controls can range from engineering strategies to administrative strategies or a combination of the two. Included in ?re protection and prevention is emergency response. Emergency response involves organizing, training, and coordinating skilled employees with regard to emergencies such as ?res, accidents, or other disasters (ASSE and BCSP 2000, 6).
FIRE PREVENTION VERSUS FIRE PROTECTION
It is important to make the distinction between ?re prevention and ?re protection. Each term is unique, and the responsibilities of the safety professional for each aspect differ. Fire prevention is the elimination of the possibility of a ?re being started. In order to start, every hostile ?re requires an initial heat source, an initial fuel source, and something to bring them together (NFPA 1997, 1–9). Prevention can occur through successful action on the heat source, the fuel source, or the behavior that brings them together (NFPA 1997, 1–9). Examples of programs that can be instituted in the workplace to prevent ?res include housekeeping programs and inspection programs. Housekeeping can eliminate unwanted fuel sources and ignition sources. Inspection programs can effectively identify ?re-ignition and fuel hazards, then take appropriate steps to eliminate them.
IMPORTANCE OF FIRE SAFETY
Protecting the workplace from ?res is a major job responsibility for safety managers. Not only do they have to ensure that the property is adequately protected to prevent catastrophic ?nancial losses to the organization, but there is also the moral obligation to protect the workers and members of the community from the devastating effects that a ?re can have upon the entire community. Over the years,
there are numerous examples of the effects that industrial ?res have had upon both the workers involved and the communities in which they occurred. Some examples of the largest and most devastating industrial ?res in the United States include the Triangle Shirtwaist Company ?re, the Imperial Foods processing plant ?re, the Phillips Petroleum chemical plant explosion and ?re, and the Crescent City, Illinois, ?re.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) set a strategic goal to reduce by 20 percent the rate of death caused by fire related incidents from the 1998 rate by 2013. Since the Commission’s inception, it has been investigating the causes of and damages resulting from residential fires. In recent years, the CPSC has conducted research into college housing fires. Case work has been done in the Eastern and Western regions of the United States by CPSC field investigators. This background chapter contains information on relevant studies of past college housing fires, means of detecting and extinguishing these fires, and current attempts to prevent the fires through education and legislation, which will help in formulating recommendations to the CPSC on the issue of college housing fire safety.
Causes of Fires in Industry’s
1. Combustible Dust
Often overlooked, and highly deadly, combustible dust is a major cause of fire in food manufacturing, woodworking, chemical manufacturing, metalworking, pharmaceuticals, and just about every other industry you can name. The reason is that just about everything, including food, dyes, chemicals, and metals – even materials that aren’t fire risks in larger pieces – have the potential to be combustible in dust form. And these explosions aren’t easy to contain. In a typical incident, combustible material comes into contact with an ignition source causing a small fire. These small fires go unreported, but they don’t come without consequences. Even small fires in industrial facilities cause loss of product, time and sometimes bodily injury.
( Fig 2.1 – Combustible Dust )
The outcome can also be much worse. If there’s dust in the area, the primary explosion will cause that dust to become airborne. Then, the dust cloud itself can ignite, causing a secondary explosion that can be many times the size and severity of the primary explosion. If enough dust has accumulated, these secondary explosions have the potential to bring down entire facilities, causing immense damage and fatalities. Most people recall the Imperial Sugar explosion as an example of a devastating loss due to combustible dust accumulation. The key ingredient in combustible dust fires and explosions is the presence of dust itself. While dust cannot be eliminated entirely, you can make sure it doesn’t accumulate to a dangerous level simply by following a regular housekeeping regimen.
2. Hot Work
Although hot work is commonly equated with welding and torch cutting, there are many other activities – including brazing, burning, heating, and soldering – that pose fire hazard. This is because sparks and molten material, which reach temperatures greater than 1000?F, can easily travel more than 35 feet. In 2014, a pier fire in California caused by a welder’s torch resulted in more than $100 million in damage when it caused a partial collapse of a warehouse floor.3 In 2012, three workers performing hot work died disassembling a metal crude oil tank. The sparks from the work ignited vapors inside the tank, causing a fire that then spread to nearby woods.
( Fig 2.2 – Hot work process )
Hot work is also a major culprit in combustible dust fires, as the sparks generated from the work can ignite in the surrounding area.
In one incident in North Carolina, three contract welders were seriously burned when sparks ignited the wood dust in the silo where they were working. The investigation found a trifecta of problems; the silo hadn’t been cleaned of dust before the work began, no hot work permit had been issued, and there was no fire protection and prevention plan in place.
3. Flammable liquids and gasses
These fires, which often occur at chemical plants, can be disastrous.
( Fig 2.3 – Flammable liquids and gasses )
A 2010 power plant explosion in Middletown, CT killed six people and injured more than 50, and can all be traced to flammable gas. In this case, the subsequent investigation revealed hundreds of safety violations, many of which OSHA deemed “willful.” As a result, the agency fined the companies involved $16.6 million, one of the largest penalties ever issued.
There is certainly some danger inherent in any work involving flammable liquids and gasses, but all available safety precautions should be taken to mitigate these risks.
4. Equipment and MachineryFaulty equipment and machinery are also major causes of industrial fires. Heating and hot work equipment are typically the largest issue here – in particular, furnaces that aren’t properly installed, operated, and maintained. In addition, any mechanical equipment can become a fire hazard due to friction between moving parts. This risk can be practically eliminated, simply by following recommended cleaning and maintenance procedures, including lubrication.
( Fig 2.4 – Equipment and Machinery )
Even seemingly innocuous equipment can be a hazard under the right circumstances. And, in many cases, the equipment least likely to be thought of as a fire risk turns out to be the biggest problem, due to companies not recognizing the risk and not taking the proper precautions.
5. Electrical Hazards
Electrical fire hazards include wiring that is exposed or not up to code, overloaded outlets, extension cords, overloaded circuits and static discharge. The damage caused by these fires can quickly compound thanks to several of the other items mentioned above.
( Fig 2.5 – Electrical Hazards )
Any of these hazards can cause a spark, which can serve as an ignition source for combustible dust, as well as flammable liquids and gasses.
The “fire protection engineering” as the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environment from destructive fire. The earliest examples of fire protection engineering can be found in the various regulations that were established as a result of catastrophic historic conflagrations.
After Rome burned in 64 AD, Emperor Nero had regulations drawn up after the fire requiring fireproof materials be used for external walls in rebuilding the city. This was perhaps the first recorded example of using the science and engineering of the day in the practice of fire protection engineering.
After the collapse of the Roman Empire and the onset of the Dark Ages, it wasn’t until the 17th century, during the Renaissance, that a technical approach to fire protection again emerged. After the Great London Fire of 1666, which destroyed over 80 percent of the city, London adopted its first building regulations requiring stone and brick houses with fire-resisting party wall separations. The London fire also spurred interest in the development of fire-suppression equipment in the form of hand-pumper fire apparatus. The design of this equipment is another example of early fire protection engineering.
Throughout the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain in the 18th century and in the United States in the early 19th century, conflagrations continued but began to decline as combustible construction was replaced by masonry, concrete and steel; public fire departments were formed; public water supplies with underground water mains and fire hydrants were installed; and fire apparatus improved. During this same period, the focus of fire protection engineering shifted from addressing multiple building conflagrations to dealing with specific buildings and their contents. New industrial processes and material storage practices resulted in greater fire risks, and a number of spectacular building fires occurred during this period as engineering solutions were being developed to address the new fire hazards.
During the middle of the 19th century, a number of severe fires occurred in textile and paper mills in New England. Caused by lint and paper debris, these fires spread so rapidly that they could not be controlled by traditional manual firefighting. The fire protection engineering solution was to install a system of manually operated perforated pipes at the ceiling, thereby creating one of the first fixed fire-suppression systems. The desire to make such a water extinguishing system automatic ultimately led to the development of one of the most important innovations in fire protection engineering – the automatic sprinkler. The first patent for an automatic sprinkler was awarded to Henry S. Parmelee in 1874. Frederick Grinnell further refined the sprinkler design in the early 1880s.
During the 19th century, many of the advancements in fire protection engineering were brought about by the influence of the insurance industry and the desire to minimize property insurance losses.
Blazes were common throughout the Industrial Revolution but we began to see a decline in the number of major fires as manufacturing veered towards non-combustible materials?—?steel, concrete, stone. Dedicated fire departments were formed in major cities and public water supplies with underground water mains and fire hydrants were installed which greatly contributed to fire control.
The Fires Prevention (Metropolis) Act was introduced in London in 1774. It classed buildings into seven different categories based on thickness of external walls and party walls. The Act also included regulations on the maximum area of warehouses and stated that “every parish should provide three or more proper ladders of one, two and three stores high, for assisting persons in houses on fire to escape therefrom.”
During the middle of the 19th century, a number of severe fires destroyed textile and paper mills in New England, caused by the prevalence of flammable paper and lint. The solution to these ravaging fires was to install ceiling-mounted sprinklers that were manually operated?—?one of the first instances of fixed fire-suppression systems, a technique that has prevailed in modern times. The patent for an automatic sprinkler was awarded to Henry S. Parmelee in 1874. Frederick Grinnell, a pioneer in fire safety, further refined sprinkler designs in the 1880s.
Throughout the 19th century, the increasing influence of insurance companies saw a greater interest in fire protection. In February 1862, insurance companies who were responsible for the London Fire Engine Establishment wrote to the Home Secretary saying that they could no longer be responsible for the safety of London from fire as it was far too costly.
Early 20th Century
The early 20th century saw a great number of fire protection acts come to fruition due to interminable fire instances. These include the 1901 Factory and Workshop Act, London Building Acts (Amendment) Act 1905, a Royal Commission in 1921, the London Building Acts 1930. Through these legislations, building fire codes and standards became the primary means of protection buildings and people against fire.
In this time, the quest for knowledge about fire protection and engineering continued to thrive, extending into more diverse fields of civil and mechanical engineering, architecture, psychology, and electrical engineering.
Late 20th Century
As early as the 1950s, fire protection engineering and consulting began to emerge as its own profession. This included the development of fire testing, the identification of industrial hazards and warehouse storage techniques, risk assessment and examination of roofing, and storage (especially for combustible materials like rubber and paper).
The results of these tests saw the introduction of more effective sprinkler systems and new fire extinguishing techniques (including halogenated fire extinguishing agents, hi-ex foams and water mists). Smoke detectors were also introduced, replacing heat detectors.
In 1971, a fire on the upper floors of a high rise in New York highlighted growing concern about fire safety in the city’s ever-growing number of skyscrapers. The result was a complete rehaul of fire protection engineering design parameters for high-rises, this included the introduction of automatic sprinkler systems as a standard. Further developments like this were made onwards into the 21st century.
Technological advancements in the late 20th and early 21st centuries saw the quantitative evaluation of fire protection continue to improve around the world.
As such, a greater array of protective aspects began to be considered with greater weight: smoke development and movement, sprinkler and smoke detector response, egress flow in buildings, the properties of particular materials such as fire release and combustibility, fireproof barrier systems like fire doors. Progress continues to be made today.
30480030480000 CHAPTER: 4
TYPE OF FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM
FIRE HOSE REELS
FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEMS
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
304800304800001. FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Fire extinguishers are provided for a ‘first attack’ firefighting measure, generally undertaken by the occupants of the building before the fire service arrives. It is important that occupants are familiar with which extinguisher type to use on which fire.
Most fires start as a small fire and may be extinguished if the correct type and amount of extinguishing agent is applied whilst the fire is small and controllable.
The principle fire extinguisher types currently available include:
( Fig. 4.1 – fire extinguishers )
Fire extinguisher locations must be clearly identified. Extinguishers are colour coded according to the extinguishing agent.
It is the policy of the Community Safety and Resilience Department that fire extinguishers be logically grouped at exits from the building, so that occupants first go to the exit and then return to fight the fire, knowing that a safe exit lies behind them, away from the fire. In some instances this will be at odds with the prescriptive requirements of Australian Standard AS2444 Portable fire extinguishers and fire blankets – Selection and location, which simply specifies a distance of travel to a fire extinguisher rather than their location in relation to escape paths. Blind compliance with the standard has the potential to place the fire between the occupant and the safe escape path.
2. FIRE HOSE REELS
Fire hose reels are provided for use by occupants as a ‘first attack’ firefighting measure but may, in some instances, also be used by firefighters.
When stowing a fire hose reel, it is important to first attach the nozzle end to the hose reel valve, then close the hose reel valve, then open the nozzle to relieve any pressure in the wound hose, then close the nozzle. This achieves two principle objectives:
A depressurized hose and hose reel seal will last longer than if permanently pressurized.
When the hose reel is next used, the operator will be forced to turn on the isolating valve, thus charging the hose reel with pressurized water supply, before being able to drag the hose to the fire. A potential danger exists if the operator reaches the fire and finds no water is available because the hose reel valve is still closed.
Because hose reels are generally located next to an exit, in an emergency it is possible to reach a safe place simply by following the hose.
( Fig. 4.2 – fire hose reels )
In South Australia, a unique floor mounted swivel hose guide is often employed which lays the hose at floor level, prior to being dragged by the operator. In practice for a single person, this makes withdrawal of the hose much easier than does the traditional high level swinging arm hose guide.
3. FIRE HYDRANT SYSTEMS
Fire hydrant systems are installed in buildings to help firefighters quickly attack the fire. Essentially, a hydrant system is a water reticulation system used to transport water in order to limit the amount of hose that firefighters have to lay, thus speeding up the firefighting process.
Fire hydrants are for the sole use of trained firefighters (which includes factory firefighting teams). Because of the high pressures available serious injury can occur if untrained persons attempt to operate the equipment connected to such installations.
Fire hydrant systems sometimes include ancillary parts essential to their effective operation such as pumps, tanks and fire service booster connections. These systems must be maintained and regularly tested if they are to be effective when needed.
The placement of such equipment needs to closely interface with fire service operational procedure; simply complying with deemed to satisfy code provisions is a potential recipe for disaster. For any advice regarding these systems, old or new, please ask the intended users; contact the Community Safety and Resilience Department.
( Fig. 4.3 – fire hydrant systems )
4. AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
Time is essential in the control of fire. Automatic sprinkler systems are one of the most reliable methods available for controlling fires. Today’s automatic fire sprinkler systems offer state of the art protection of life and property from the effects of fire. Sprinkler heads are now available which are twenty times more sensitive to fire than they were ten years ago.
A sprinkler head is really an automatic (open once only) tap. The sprinkler head is connected to a pressurized water system. When the fire heats up the sprinkler head, it opens at a pre-set temperature, thus allowing pressurized water to be sprayed both down onto the fire and also up to cool the hot smoky layer and the building structure above the fire. This spray also wets combustible material in the vicinity of the fire, making it difficult to ignite, thereby slowing down or preventing fire spread and growth.
When a sprinkler head operates, the water pressure in the system drops, activating an alarm which often automatically calls the fire service via a telephone connection.
( Fig. 4.4 – automatic sprinkler systems )
Some people say sprinklers cause a lot of water damage. As has been explained, only those sprinkler heads heated by the fire operate; all sprinklers in a building do not operate at once. Usually non-fire water damage only occurs if the occupants carelessly damage the system. Firefighters use much more water than a sprinkler system. The combined damage from a fire and the water used by firefighters dramatically exceeds that likely from a properly installed sprinkler system.
Because, historically, complete extinguishment of fires has not been achieved, it is traditional to consider that sprinklers only control fire growth until intervention occurs by the fire service. Today, some sprinkler systems are designed for early suppression and are considered to have failed if they do not extinguish the fire.
Sprinkler systems are usually installed in high or large buildings and high fire hazard occupancies. Statistics show that in a majority of cases where sprinklers are installed the fire has been controlled by one sprinkler head alone.
30480030480000 CHAPTER: 5
WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM
5.1 DESIGN OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM
( Fig. 5.1 – Design of all direction fire control system )
5.2 WORKING MECHANISM OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM
All direction fire control system mainly working on linear guide way and roller drive. Fig 5.1 shows two linear guide way fixed with beam, which works as a X – axis. It is also known as linear track. Counter guide way shows in figure 5.1 which is above the X – axis which is shown in figure 5.1. x – axis working as a track. Counter linear track connected with the roller drive which is above the X – axis linear
track. Counter linear track travel in linear manner. Fig 5.1 shows counter linear track wheels connected with gear motor shaft for linear travelling process. On Y – axis counter track the conversional nozzle fixed with the help of roller drive. Roller dive provide left to right and right to left moments to the nozzle. fig 5.1 shows conversional nozzle attached with flexible pipe and flexible pipe connected with pipe drag. Pipe drag provide safe operation of piping moments. Second end of the flexible pipe is connected to the high-pressure pump. High pressure pump located at the ground floor. High pressure pump provides the pressure to the water which is flow from nozzle for fire extinguishing process. fig 5.1 also shows the water tank which is located at the ground floor. Water tank used for storage of water in bulk. High pressure pump connected with water tank by the help of pipe. This pipe provide path to the water form tank to nozzle.
Whenever fire is occurs Nozzle will adjust by the travelling process of X axis and Y axis with roller drive. After the locating of nozzle high pressure pump provide high pressure water flow on fire form nozzle after the high pressure water comes near the nozzle, nozzle will increase the pressure and water will flows on fire for extinguishing.
5.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM30480030480000
( Fig – 5.2 Block Diagram Of All direction fire control system )
30480030480000 CAHPTER: 6
LENIAR MOTION TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
There are many ways to build linear systems for motion in the X, Y, and/or Z directions – also known as Cartesian coordinates. The terms we generally use to refer to these systems depend on how the axes are assembled, where the load is positioned, and to some extent, what type of use the system was designed for. In many industrial applications, Cartesian and gantry-style robots are prevalent, but in precision applications, XY tables are often the better choice, due to their compact, rigid structure and very high travel and positioning accuracies.
Cartesian systems consist of two or three axes: X-Y, X-Z, or X-Y-Z. They often incorporate an end effector with a rotational component for orienting the load or workpiece, but they always provide linear motion in at least two of the three Cartesian coordinates
( Fig 6.1 – Cartesian systems )
When a Cartesian system is used, the load is usually cantilevered from the outermost axis (Y or Z). For example, in an X-Y gantry, the load is mounted to the Y axis, either to the end of the axis or at a distance from the axis, creating a moment arm on the Y axis. This can limit their load capacity, particularly when the outermost axis has a very long stroke, creating a large moment on the lower, supporting axes.
Cartesian systems are used in a wide range of applications with maximum strokes on each axis typically one meter or less. The most common of these applications include pick-and-place, dispensing, and assembly.
To address the issue of outer axes causing a moment load on the inner axes, systems use two X axes, and in some cases, two Y and two Z axes. (Gantries almost always have three axes: X, Y and Z.) The load on a gantry system is located within the gantry’s footprint and the gantry is mounted over the working area. However, for parts that cannot be handled from above, gantries can be configured to work from below.
( Fig 6.2 – Gantry systems )
Gantry systems are used in applications with long strokes (greater than one meter) and can transport very heavy payloads that are not suitable for a cantilevered design. One of the most common uses for gantry systems is overhead transport, such as moving large automotive components from one station to another in an assembly operation.
XY tables are similar to XY Cartesian systems, in that they have two axes (X and Y, as their name implies) mounted on top of each other, and typically have strokes of one meter or less. But the key difference between XY Cartesian systems and XY tables lies in how the load is positioned. Instead of being cantilevered, as in a Cartesian system, the load on an XY table is almost always centered on the Y axis, with no significant moment created on the Y axis by the load.
( Fig 6.3 – XY – Tables )
Because XY tables are primarily used for very high precision applications, the guideway of choice is crossed roller slides, which provide extremely smooth and flat travel. Drive mechanisms are typically ball screw or linear motor, although very fine pitch lead screws are also common.
DESIGN ; CALCULATION OF GANTRY MECHANISM
The basis of design of the Gantry mechanism is the gantry robot, also known as a Cartesian robot. A gantry robot contains a minimum of three elements of motion, each of which represents a linear motion in a single direction. These motions are arranged to be perpendicular to each other and are typically labeled X, Y, and Z. X and Y are located in the horizontal plane and Z is vertical. The interior of this box is referred to as the working envelope, the space in which the robot can move things anywhere. The Gantry Mechanism designed, in this thesis, has one more degree of freedom, which is rotation in the X-Y plane. The fourth degree of freedom enables the user to horizontally observe the workspace by rotating the end-effecter.
Design and selection of mechanical parts
The motion in X and Y direction is achieved by power transmission through timing belts and pulleys assemblies, while Z-direction motion comprise of a threaded rod and nut arrangement . The motor for ?-direction motion directly couples with a shaft, the other end of which carries the camera.
Timing belts and pulleys
Timing belts and pulleys provide synchronized motion. The grooves of timing belts mate with the teeth on the timing pulleys, which make the drive positive. The slip between the belt and the pulley is extremely minor, which ensures that the driven pulley is always rotating at a fixed speed ratio to the driving pulley. These belts have an operating efficiency of about 98% and they can operate successfully between 8000 and 12000 hrs.
Belt design procedure, based on power calculations, has following steps
The required driven power is calculated from the driven speed and the maximum driven torque required (including inertia load, shock loads, friction, etc.). A service factor is obtained from the information on the driver, the driven equipment and the operating period.
A design power is obtained based from the product of the driven power required and the service factor.
Design Power = Driven Power x Service Factor
Based on design power a belt section is initially selected. A basic power for the belt is calculated, assuming pulley diameters, using the Table
where, r rpm of faster shaft /1000;
p pitch diameter of smallest Pulley (mm);
Z (p x r) / 25.4.
Using the basic power and design power, a suitable belt width is selected. If the basic belt power is less than the design power – one or more of belt size, pulley size or speed is/are changed. A width factor is calculated by dividing the basic power by the design power. A belt width is selected with a width factor higher than the calculated width factor.
After selecting suitable pulleys and centre distance of the belt, the drive geometry is designed.
The design and selection of parts has been performed starting from ?-motion. Subsequently, calculations for Z-motion, Y-motion and X-motion are made. A specimen calculation is presented in Appendix-A.
Shafts for X-direction motion
The shafts, which transmit power in the X-direction, are designed for torsional loading. Diameter of a shaft in torsion is given by the following relation:
d = 16T/ ?? 1/3 x1000 …………………………..………………………… (3.1)
where, d = diameter of shaft (mm);
T = Torque (0.1197Nm, Appendix-C2);
? = Allowable shear stress;
= 260Mpa (Maximum Shear Stress Theory, ?all = 0.5Sy, Sy = 520 MPa);
d = (16 x 0.1197 / (pi x 260 x 106))(1/3)x1000;
= 1.3285 mm;
Selected shaft dia = 6 mm.
Shafts for Y-direction motion
The shafts for Y-direction undergo bending due to the sliding assembly for Z and ?motion. Diameter of a shaft in bending is given by the following relation:
d = 32M/?? 1/3 x1000 ……………………….…..……………………… (3.2)
where, d = diameter of shaft (mm);
M = Bending Moment (Nm);
? = Allowable bending stress;
= 260Mpa (Maximum Normal Stress Theory and Von Mises Theory, ?all = Sut,
Sut = 860 MPa);
Bending Moment, M = Px(L/2)
Maximum bending stress in the shafts will happen when the hanging mass (m ) is
in the middle of the shaft
Mass supported by shafts, m = 1.082 kg
Factor of safety on load = 2
mfs = m x 2 = 2.164 kg
Force, F = mfs x g = 2.164 x 9.81
= 21.3 N
Force on each shaft, P = F / 2 = 10.65 N
Span Length, L = 60 mm
Bending Moment, M = 10.65 x 60/2 / 1000 = 0.3184 Nm
d = ( 32 x 0.3184 / (pi x 860 x 106)(1/3) x1000
= 1.5585 mm
Selected shaft dia = 6 mm
Maximum deflection in the shaft is given by,
? max = Px L/2 ( L2 – b2 )3/2 / 9?3LEI…………………………………………(3.3)
For a shaft loaded at the center it occurs at
x = ?L2 – b2 / 3
where, I = area moment of inertia of the cross-section (?d4/64);
I = 6.3617e-011 m4;
?max = 3.7541e-004 mm;
x = L/2.
The deflection is very small; therefore, the Carriage-2 can slide over the shafts
without shaft deflection constraint.
Shafts for ?-direction motion
The shaft for the ?-direction is also designed for torsional loading. Diameter of a
shaft in torsion is given by the relation 3.1.
T = ? x P x r …………..(Fig. 3.5)
where, ? = Coefficient of static friction (0.61);
P = mw x g;
mw = mass of web-cam ( 1lb = 0.454 kg);
r = mean radius of loading;
? = Allowable shear stress;
= 260Mpa (Maximum Shear Stress Theory, ?all = 0.5Sy, Sy = 520 MPa);
Therefore, T = 0.0217 Nm;
d = ( 16 x 0.0217 / (pi x 260 x 106)(1/3)x1000;
= 0.7519 mm;
Selected shaft dia = 4 mm.
30480030480000 CHAPTER: 8
MAIN COMPONENT OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM
Gear MotorRoller Drive
Linear Guide Way
Conversion ( Fog ) Nozzle
Flexible Fire Pipe
1. Gear Motor
A gear motor is a specific type of electrical motor that is designed to produce high torque while maintaining a low horsepower, or low speed, motor output. Gear motors can be found in many different applications, and are probably used in many devices in your home.
Gear motors are commonly used in devices such as can openers, garage door openers, washing machine time control knobs and even electric alarm clocks. Common commercial applications of a gear motor include hospital beds, commercial jacks, cranes and many other applications that are too many to list.
A gear motor can be either an AC (alternating current) or a DC (direct current) electric motor. Most gear motors have an output of between about 1,200 to 3,600 revolutions per minute (RPMs). These types of motors also have two different speed specifications: normal speed and the stall-speed torque specifications.
Gear motors are primarily used to reduce speed in a series of gears, which in turn creates more torque. This is accomplished by an integrated series of gears or a gear box being attached to the main motor rotor and shaft via a second reduction shaft. The second shaft is then connected to the series of gears or gearbox to create what is known as a series of reduction gears. Generally speaking, the longer the train of reduction gears, the lower the output of the end, or final, gear will be.
( Fig – 8.1 Gear Motor )
An excellent example of this principle would be an electric time clock (the type that uses hour, minute and second hands). The synchronous AC motor that is used to power the time clock will usually spin the rotor at around 1500 revolutions per minute. However, a series of reduction gears is used to slow the movement of the hands on the clock.
For example, while the rotor spins at about 1500 revolutions per minute, the reduction gears allow the final secondhand gear to spin at only one revolution per minute. This is what allows the secondhand to make one complete revolution per minute on the face of the clock.
2. Roller Drive
The Roller Follower is a compact and highly rigid bearing system. It contains needle bearings and is used as a guide roller for cam discs and linear motion. Since its outer ring rotates while keeping direct contact with the mating surface, this product is thick-walled and designed to bear an impact load. Inside the outer ring, needle rollers and a precision cage are incorporated. This prevents the product from skewing and achieves a superb rotation performance. And, as a result, the product is capable of easily withstanding high-speed rotation. Roller Followers are divided into two types: separable type whose inner ring can be separated, and non-separable type whose inner ring cannot be separated. There are two types of the outer ring in shape: spherical and cylindrical. The spherical outer ring easily absorbs a distortion of the shaft center when the cam follower is installed and helps lighten a biased load.
( Fig – 8.2 Roller )
The Roller Follower is used in a wide range of applications such as cam mechanisms of automatic machines, dedicated machines as well as carrier systems, conveyors, bookbinding machines, tool changers of machining centers, pallet changers, automatic coating machines, sliding forks of automatic warehouses.
3. Linear Guide Way
Linear motion systems are ready-to-install drive and guidance units. This makes it easier for users to design and assemble their applications. It is not necessary to calculate and dimension the individual components, since the linear motion systems are installed as complete units. The first linear motion systems built by the former “Deutsche Star” consisted of linear bushings and shafts and a ball screw or pneumatic drive. These transfer tables were also offered as two-axis X-Y tables. Meanwhile, many different guide and drive unit variants have been incorporated into linear motion systems. Today, customers can select the optimal linear motion system from a broad range of Rexroth products.
There are many ways to build linear systems for motion in the X, Y, and/or Z directions – also known as Cartesian coordinates. The terms we generally use to refer to these systems depend on how the
( Fig – 8.3 Linear Guide Way ) axes are assembled, where the load is positioned, and to some extent, what type of use the system was designed for. In many industrial applications, Cartesian and gantry-style robots are prevalent, but in precision applications, XY tables are often the better choice, due to their compact, rigid structure and very high travel and positioning accuracies.
4. Conversion (Fog) Nozzle
A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe. A nozzle is often a pipe or tube of varying cross sectional area, and it can be used to direct or modify the flow of a fluid (liquid or gas). Nozzles are frequently used to control the rate of flow, speed, direction, mass, shape, and/or the pressure of the stream that emerges from them. In a nozzle, the velocity of fluid increases at the expense of its pressure energy.
Proponents of fog/combination nozzles say they are more effective because the water dispersed by them absorbs more heat, they’re more versatile, and with the advent of automatic nozzles, they put out a constant gpm , independent of the amount of supply pressure, therefore making them more reliable. Photo Mike Kilos, Proponents of fog/combination nozzles say they are more effective because the water
dispersed by them absorbs more heat, they remove versatile, and with the advent of automatic nozzles, they put out a constant gpm, independent of the amount of supply pressure, therefore making them more reliable.
( Fig – 8.4 Conversion Fog Nozzle )
The fog nozzle has been a controversial, yet valuable tool to the fire service for nearly 150 years. Applying water to an interior, compartmentalized fire via a fog nozzle, when done correctly, breaks up water droplets into even smaller units. This allows for a more rapid conversion of water to steam, which absorbs more heat from the air, walls, ceiling and floor of the room. When compared to the application of water from a solid-stream nozzle, the water from a fog nozzle has greater surface area for the absorption of heat. The arguments against fog/combination nozzles from firefighters who prefer solid-stream nozzles are most likely due to a lack of understanding, but both types of nozzles have a place in the modern fire service. Increased education and training for new and veteran firefighters on the proper selection and use of each type of nozzle can only increase firefighter safety worldwide and reduce the number of firefighter injuries and line-of-duty deaths caused by steam burns. Many companies like Task Force Tips, Elkhart Brass and Poke continue to make both types of fire nozzles.
Until it’s proven that either type of nozzle is ineffective, firefighters will continue to prefer one over the other. The controversy and debate will continue over which one is most effective and safer;
however, no matter which side of the debate you fall on, firefighters must educate themselves and use all the tools in their toolbox, when appropriate, to stay safe, save lives and to go home to their families at the end of their shift.
5. Flexible Fire Pipe
Flexible fire pipe is a type of rigid water piping which is built into multi-story buildings in a vertical position or bridges in a horizontal position, to which fire hoses can be connected, allowing manual application of water to the fire. Within the context of a building or bridge, a standpipe serves the same purpose as a fire hydrant.
In many other countries, hydrants in streets are below ground level. Fire trucks carry standpipes and key, and there are bars on the truck. The bar is used to lift a cover in the road, exposing the hydrant. The standpipe is then “sunk” into the hydrant, and the hose is connected to the exposed ends of the standpipe. The bar is then combined with the key, and is used to turn the hydrant on and off.
( Fig – 8.5 Flexible Fire Pipe )
When standpipes are fixed into buildings, the pipe is in place permanently with an intake usually located near a road or driveway, so that a fire engine can supply water to the system. The standpipe extends into the building to supply firefighting water to the interior of the structure via hose outlets, often located between each pair of floors in stairwells in high rise buildings. Dry standpipes are not filled with water until needed in firefighting. Fire fighters often bring hoses in with them and attach them to standpipe outlets located along the pipe throughout the structure. This type of standpipe may also be installed horizontally on bridges.
6. Pipe Drag
Pipe or Cable is popularly known is used for guidance and protection for moving cables are innovative products that can be assembled quickly. energy chains or drag chains as called by many offer exceptional lifetimes in adverse conditions while effectively guiding and protecting the moving cables, hoses and other media. These cable carriers have multitude of possibilities in terms of movement or travel strokes possible. High levels of acceleration can be achieved by these drag chains. Simple assembly of modular system on site and rapid retrofitting of cables is possible with these cable carrier system. igus® energy chains or drag chains accommodate very high dynamic loads and meet stringent service life along with all requisite safety considerations and certifications.
Cable drag chains are sometimes referred to as cable chains, cable carriers, energy chains or cable track. Their role is to support and protect moving cables. They can be manufactured from plastic or steel and can be used in an extremely wide range of applications.
( Fig – 8.6 Pipe Drag )
Cable drag chains can be used in a variety of applications, wherever there are moving cables or hoses. Some examples of applications include; machine tools, process and automation machinery, vehicle transporters, vehicle washing systems and cranes. Cable drag chains come in an extremely large variety of sizes. Below there is an example of a small plastic chain application and a large steel chain application.
In most cases cable drag chains are used in linear applications as in the instances above. ie the chain moves back and forth between two points in a line. However cable chains can also be used in circular or rotary applications. Here a cable chain can be used in an application where the cables connect two points turning relative to one another.
There is virtually no limit to the length of a cable drag chain application. They can start from a travel length of less than a meter up to travel lengths of over 100 meters. For excessively long travel lengths extra care needs to be taken that the cable chain is properly supported or that load and friction are kept to a minimum. For example the Marathon system is designed to support cables over long travel lengths whilst keeping the force required to move the chain to a minimum. Very often the chains in long travel systems slide on themselves.
7. Water Pump
The pump is the heart of the high pressure cleaning system. Like the human heart, most pumps are built to last for a lifetime. Many different types of pumps are available but only a few of these pump configurations develop sufficient pressures at relatively low flows and are priced economically enough for widespread use in the high pressure cleaning equipment industry.
All pumps in common use in the industry operate according to the same manner, moving water with the action of a piston or plunger in a cylinder. The pump applies force to water to create flow. Plungers or pistons moving in the pump’s cylinders apply this force to the water. The process is roughly the reverse of the action of an automobile’s internal combustion engine. The engine uses piston movement to turn a crankshaft. The pump uses crankshaft movement to drive pistons, which move the water in and out of the pump.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps.
( Fig – 8.7 High pressure water pump )
Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells, aquarium filtering, pond filtering and aeration, in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection, in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers. In the medical industry, pumps are used for biochemical processes in developing and manufacturing medicine, and as artificial replacements for body parts, in particular the artificial heart and penile prosthesis. Single stage pump – When in a casing only one impeller is revolving then it is called single stage pump. Double/multi-stage pump – When in a casing two or more than two impellers are revolving then it is called double/multi-stage pump. In biology, many different types of chemical and bio-mechanical pumps have evolved, and biomimicry is sometimes used in developing new types of mechanical pumps.
8. Body Structure
Industrial product / equipment engineers often must design and build structures around their heavy equipment’s, particularly in the industrial manufacturing machinery and installed equipment segments. Designing and coordinating the construction of these structures and associated equipment’s is one of the most important considerations in overall product design. Unlike other generic CAD solutions in
the market, Dassault Systems (DS)’ solution has been developed in cooperation with leading engineering companies to ensure support of standard methods and practices that meet the requirements of engineering and classification societies.
( Fig – 8.8 Body Structure )
Dassault Systems (DS)’ solution for Structure and Body Design provides industrial product / equipment manufacturers with intelligent templates that allow designers to capture and re-use knowledge and design intent to greatly reduce design time. DS’ solution supports a smooth transition from general arrangement (the output of the project development phase) to basic or class design, where rules and strength calculations are performed. Finite element analysis can be carried out with CATIA, SIMULIA or other commercially available solvers. Knowledge templates automate difficult design cases while maintaining associativity with project specifications. Not all structural details are standard so our solution provides efficient interactive tools to create individual details that still carry the full spec-driven implementation. Copy and paste functionality makes it easier to reuse existing design components to rapidly complete the detailing. During the detailing stage, additional data is produced to represent the different stages of each part. These stages can include variables such as special plate profile or beam cutting. For non-traditional steel work, an interface to ALMA is provided where nesting and specialty plate steel cutting can be performed.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ALL DIRECTION FIRE
This system is totally automated so its required less man power.
Fire will control by using only one nozzle and one water pump to control whole fire.
It is cheaper and reliable.
It is fast automatically operated.
Installation and maintenance is easy.
Its provide quick action for save accidental hazards.
Not required more than one nozzle.
It’s not covers the large area for fire extinguished.
Its required more power of motor.
Periodic maintenance is required.
One time its will work on one location for fire extinguished.
It’s not works on electric fire.
The developed prototype exhibits the expected results. Further modifications and working limitations will put this work in the main league of use. This concept less fire hazard, increase human safety & protect industrial property which leads to efficient working. This further line should be modeled using equations and an experimental agreement. The constructional work or the infrastructural work demands efficient and user friendly machinery which will lead to more and more use of three way dropping All direction fire control system.
30480030480000 CHATER: 11
Future scope of proposed research work to increase the human safety, less fire hazard and protect industrial property.
We can attach fire sensor, smoke sensor, heat sensor, thermal sensor through make the fire control system fully automatically ran.
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