Lyme disease is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi

Lyme disease is a multisystem inflammatory disease that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The bacterium has a number of hybrid strains that are also known to cause Lyme disease and, thus, the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacterium is used to refer to the different strains that cause Lyme disease. The different strains may have slightly different symptoms on the host. Borrelia burgdorferi is a helical shaped spirochete bacterium. It has a flexible cell wall and outer and inner membrane. In the bacteria’s cell, there is long and cylindrical protoplasm and the bacteria are usually about 10-25 ?m long and 1 ?m.
The bacterium is usually introduced to the host through the location of a bite by an infected Ixodes Tick. Once in the skin, the bacterium can produce erythema migrans or pathognomonic skin lesion or be disseminated through the blood or lymphatics. If untreated or undiagnosed the bacteria can persist in the body for months or even years.
Lyme disease has been found to be prevalent in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in the temperate regions. In the United States, Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease. The descriptive results of research done in United States discovered that most of the prevalent areas in the United States were the Northeastern (Maine to Maryland) and Midwestern (Minnesota and Wisconsin) regions. The results also showed that social vulnerability was decreasing in the United States during the three interval times that the research was carried out (Ratnapradipa, McDaniel, ; Barger, 2017). The most socially vulnerable geographical areas in the case of Lyme disease were West South Central division of the Southern Region (Ratnapradipa, McDaniel, ; Barger, 2017).
The global environmental changes have increased the prevalence of Lyme disease in Europe. This is attributed to the complexity of the roles of different host species that have made Lyme disease controversial, particularly, because it calls for the control of the temporal and high spatial deer population like in Norway (Easterday, Stigum, Aas, Meisingset, ; Viljugrein, 2016).
There are only two treatment trends that are used to treat Lyme disease and it involves the use of antibiotics. Oral antibiotics are used for early manifestation is effective in treating single erythema migraines that is devoid of any signs of systematic disease.
In the case of late manifestation where patients develop acute neuroborreliosis weeks or months after the tick bite, intravenous treatment is preferred.
Yellow Fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever that has a high case of fatality rate. The viral disease is normally transmitted by mosquitos. Yellow fever is a member of the Flaviviridae family, which are single strand RNA viruses that are usually 40 to 60 nm long and they normally replicate in the cytoplasm of the host (infected) cells (Vasconcelos, et al., 2004). The virus is a single serotype and, thus, the yellow fever vaccine protects the host from all the strains of the virus (Colebunders, et al., 2002).
The disease is usually characterized by renal failure, hepatic dysfunction, shock and coagulopathy. The mid-zone of the liver lobule is usually the most affected. The viral antigen localized in the mid-zone and it is evident that in fatal cases there are usually very high virus loads and it is usually the site of direct viral injury.
Yellow fever is prevalent in the tropical regions of South America and sub-Saharan Africa and it is an epidemic disease that has very high mortality rate. In Africa the incidence of yellow fever varies significantly because the disease occurs in epidemics, particularly, given that most of the people do not report the disease outbreaks or cases given that they take place in the remote areas.
Currently, there is an ongoing yellow fever outbreak in Brazil that has caused close to 154 deaths in Brazil. There have been 464 confirmed cases of yellow fever that have been reported between July 2017 and February 2018 (Hamer, et al., 2018).
It is important to note that there is no primary treatment for yellow fever. There is only secondary treatment for yellow fever and it involves the supportive care.
The only evidence of possible antiviral therapy would be using high doses of Ribavirin in very high concentrations at a very early stage so as to curb the onset of the spread of the virus and this is usually not possible because of the adverse effects on the immune system of the patient (Monath, Treatment of yellow fever, 2008).