Initially the loss of biodiversity could be defined as the extinction of species

Initially the loss of biodiversity could be defined as the extinction of species. Curiously the species richness of a particular ecosystem may hardly change or may even increase because new – often wide spread – species replace the original ones. It is therefore important not only to look at species, but also at the abundance (the number of individuals) of species.
Much research focused on the reasons of the increased loss of biodiversity in the 20th century. Identified anthropogenic drivers influencing the loss of biodiversity are land conversion, exploitation, fragmentation, water extraction, pollution, eutrophication and climate change.
Although climate is a slow changing factor, studies on the impacts of climate change concluded that climate change is already affecting species distributions all over the world and will impact nature to a considerable amount in the 21st century.( PBL Netherland Environment Assessment Agency 2018).