Emmanuel Kweti BIOL 341 – 02 Instructor: Michael Nguyen Tuesday, October 2nd, 2018 Lab 4: Investigating Bird Beak Adaptations

INTRODUCTION Background: Charles Darwin is for the most part known for his disclosure of the idea of the concept of evolutionary change, which is named Natural Selection. Natural Selection is the differential survival and generation of people in a population. Hardy, an English mathematician and a German doctor Weinberg independently built up the procedure of heredity which without anyone else’s input did not influence the hereditary structure of a population, this is known as the Hardy-Weinberg hypothesis. The Hardy Weinberg hypothesis expresses that the recurrence of alleles in a population will continue as before from age to age. This hypothesis is substantial just when the populace is huge, mating is random, there are no net changes in the quality pool because of transformation and there is no determination. The strong Weinberg hypothesis gives a method utilized in figuring the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in the population. p2 represents the genotypic frequency for dominant homozygotes (AA) 2pq represents the genotypic frequency for heterozygotes (Aa) q2 represents the genotypic frequency for recessive homozygotes. (aa) !

p+q=1

! To test the procedure of natural selection, the bottleneck impact is presented. Bottleneck effect impact happens when a population experiences a decrease in size because of Natural Selection. Hypothesis: Using the bottleneck impact, the population are required to lessen drastically because of chance events or remain the equivalent in consistence with Hardy-Weinberg’s theory. PREDICTION: the population assembled toward the end of this investigation would be arbitrary and near the equivalent as expressed in Hardy Weinberg’s hypothesis. MATERIALS: Plastic bag containing 100 beads (50 colored and 50 white), plastic bottle. PROCEDURE: In this lab, we set up a starting population of 50 people (two alleles at any given moment), with a 0.5 frequency for every allele. Random selection of 10% of the population was made, two alleles at any given moment (5 people). We checked every genotype and allele and decided the genotypic frequencies and the new allelic frequencies for p, q, and the surviving 5 person. Estimations were recorded in table 11.4. This procedure was rehashed ten times.

p2+2pq+q2=1

RESULTS: Table 11.4 GenerationGenotypicFrequency ObservedAllelicFrequency ObservedGenotypicFrequency ExpectedAAAaaaA(p)A(q)2pq0___0.50.50.250.500.2511220.40.60.160.480.3622210.60.40.360.480.1632210.60.40.360.480.1641310.50.50.250.500.2550230.20.80.040.320. 6462210.60.40.360.480.1672210.60.40.360.480.1681400.60.40.360.480. 1691040.20.80.040.320.64101220.40.60.160.480.36!

q2!

p2

Graph for question 2 ! There were ten generations stimulated as shown in table 11.4, the change in p and q over time was the same and steady in both allele as seen in the graph. Looking at the data, fixation did not occur in any of the allele. None of the expected genotypic frequencies went to fixation. Comparing this results to that of other teams, we notice that there was no fixation in their results as well. DISCUSSION Comparing the graph for the change of p and q, we observed that there is a consistent trend. If the allelic frequencies began with 0.2 for p, ad 0.8 for q, we would have probably seen a drastic change suggesting that chance events occurred. Evolution is the change in genetic structure of populations over time. In reference to this definition, evolution did not occur in this generation. This is due to the fact that the populations change remained steady and the same throughout the time period. We arrived at the calculations by using the Hardy-Weinberg theorem and used the values attained for the allelic frequency observed (p ; q) to draw the graph demonstrating the change. Change in p and q over timeAllelic frequency observed00.20.40.60.8Generation012345678910A(p)a(q)

CONCLUSION Evolution is a change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations, therefore if alleles in the gamete have mirror images of the parent generation and meet up randomly then the allelic and genotypic frequencies do not change from generation to generation. If this continues, in the absence of all other factors then the process repeats itself generation after generation. In this experiment no evolution took place, this agrees to the later part of the hypothesis and prediction which is in accordance with hardy Weinberg’s theory. References Genetics: Population Genetics I: The Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Mechanisms of evolution/science article