Development and Implementation of Smart Car Parking System

Development and Implementation of Smart Car Parking System (SSPS)
Introduction
The traditional parking systems such as multilevel or multi-store car parking systems (non-automated), robot car parking systems, automated multilevel car parking systems etc. have been implemented on a huge scale. But these systems have a major disadvantage of large space consumption which is successfully eliminated with the use of “Automatic car parking system”. In an automated car parking, the cars are left at the entrance and are further transported inside the building with mechanical structure. Similarly, they are retrieved by mechanical structure and placed at the exit for the owner to drive away. Our proposed system presents an Autonomous car parking that regulates the number of cars that can be parked in a given space at any given time based on the parking space availability. When a car arrives at the entrance, it will be stopped at the main gate and the driver de-boards the car. If the availability of Parking space is confirmed, the user commands the car to get parked to the designated slot. The car traces its path to the entrance of the parking area. Here, it waits and the details required for parking of car at the proper slot are communicated to the Car Control Unit. On receiving the information, the car will further trace its path to free parking spot. On successful parking, the data on the LCD will be updated automatically. JANHVI, et al
Car park are commonly found in cities and suburban areas which have significant effect in reducing the amount of traffic. They are often found in places such as shopping malls, sports stadiums, schools, churches and similar venues. Parking is an act of bringing to a halt and (or) leaving a vehicle unoccupied. A parking lot, human interference. The results are communicated wirelessly to car owners when queried, notifying car owners of the condition of the parking space. This system differs from early parking system which utilizes human placed strategically at the parking lots to assist drivers in parking their vehicles. Application of Sensor technology to parking system allows for measurement of conditions of interest such as magnetic (metal) fluctuations and light radiation (radiation or reflection of light from objects).

Types of parking system
There are serval type of parking system but for this research, we will focus on the progression through several stages of development. Generally, parking systems are divided into four, and they are listed below.
Traditional car park
Automated car park
Integrated solution car park
Robot car park
Traditional car park was the first forms of its kind. It is mostly along the road where it is marked with specific parking place and then draw lines by yellow or white paint and use an iron label with special name for a particular person.
Automatic car parking system (ASP)
An automated car parking system (APS) it is a mechanical system designed to minimize the area or volume required for parking cars. Like a multi-story parking garage, an APS provides parking for cars on multiple levels stacked vertically to maximize the number of parking spaces while minimizing land usage. APS, however, utilizes a mechanical system to transport cars to and from parking spaces rather than the driver in order to eliminate much of the space wasted in a multi-story parking garage. While a multi-story parking garage is an APS it is more similar to an automated storage and retrieval system for cars. APS are also generically known by a variety of other names, including: automated vehicle storage and retrieval system (AVSRS), car parking system, automated parking facility (APF), mechanical parking, and robotic parking garage.

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(Developing Smart Car Parking System Using Wireless Sensor Networks)
As a typical component of a smart city application, smart parking is a good illustration of how the Internet-of-Things (IoT) will be pervasively deployed in our daily living environments to provide different services to different users. It can be used for example to enable a driver to access a smart city application through a mobile device or the Internet in order to locate and reserve a parking spot in a city’s airport based on some preferences (e.g., close to the airport international departure/arrival) and prepay for the parking spot using his credit/debit card. Similarly, a citizen of a smart city may use his mobile device, a tablet or the Internet to access from home the smart city application to (1) find a free parking spot in the city center; (2) be advised of the probability for the parking spot to be still available upon his arrival in the city center and (3) decide on reserving and prepaying for such a parking spot. When deployed in a parking lot, a smart parking system can provide efficient car parking management through (1) remote parking spot localization and reservation; (2) fast car retrieval; (3) parking regulation using gate control and management; (4) car security and protection in the parking lot by associating car movement to a specific RFID tag; (5) parking gate management and many other services, such as parking billing and payment by replacing the paper-based ticketing by RFID tags. Car parking management has been addressed using two models: parking gate monitoring and parking lot monitoring. Building upon an account of the entries/exits to/from the parking lot, smart parking management based on gate monitoring may provide important services for drivers, such as the capability of checking the availability of a free spot, reservation over the Internet, etc. In smart parking management based on parking lot monitoring, each parking spot is equipped with a sensor (camera or presence sensor) to detect the presence/absence of vehicles with the objective of building an availability map that can be used for parking guidance, reservation and the other services described above when combined with RFID identification devices. While the gate monitoring model results in simple and lower cost parking systems, the lot management model is more expensive, but provides many more services to the drivers and the parking lot owner. Smart parking management using lot monitoring can be classified into multi-parking management used to manage different parking lots in different indoor and outdoor areas or mono-parking management generally targeting indoor parking lots and focusing on a single parking lot’s management. (On the Design of Smart Parking Networks in the Smart Cities: An Optimal Sensor Placement Model, Sensors 2015, Antoine Bagula and etal)
Statement of the Research Problem
In metropolitan cities, vehicle parking has become a major concern in all busy areas and a good traffic system needs a good parking system, as it is known, the land is becoming less but the population of human is growing day by day. Therefore, land is very limited and spaces need to be saved in every aspect of life. Other problem we have is crime, Theft and robbery happen in car park because it is considered a quiet place where not many people would be in the car park all the time. As population is increasing number of cars is also increasing but the area to park cars is not increasing. Time and cost are two important factors for human life, whether for an individual or business, architects, planner, developers, and engineers are all looking for viable solution.

And difficulties in finding vacant slots is a major problem drivers face especially on weekends and public holidays, it will lead to traffic congestion. Therefore a design of a stable and good control system is the solution to this problem using high technology to make it easier to deal with the system, in order to put this system in a real model for better performance as required, and at the same time do not ignore the importance of time and the necessary safety.

Aim and Objective
The Objectives of this research is to design and implement a control system for the Smart car parking system to lodge cars. The car parking system will be able to decreases the risk of robbery that can occur in regular parking lots. The drivers will remain save because the process of parking would only take a short time.

Client would not have to take a long walks to or from their car, in order to look for parking spaces, memorize where the car was parked, or spend time waiting for elevator and climbing stairs. Client will simply locate a free space using the proposed mobile app from the entrance to the parking structure. The system will create a more user friendly parking system. User should not have a problem to use the system and the system also can provide a few important features to user, this is because in conventional garage, drivers will risk vehicle damage, theft and personal injury during parking their car.

Design model
Formulate
Implement using circuit board and system design
Evaluate
Proposed Methodology
The smart parking system (SPS) considered in this research will be built around a real time operating system (RTOS) and sensor based method and the designed will be based on a single layer framework to enable modularity and to provide different services to different users of a parking system. The framework depicted by includes four layers: a sensing, networking, middleware and application layer.
Research Scope
The scope of this Research will focus on the design of Single layer of parking platforms, and will focus on the network layer of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) in detecting the following:
Detect occupancy status of each individual space in a single layer parking lot.
Display the number of available spaces at entrance of parking lot, at entrance to each layer, and at end of each aisle.

Display directional signage for each aisle, showing drivers which direction has vacant spaces.

Parking monitoring and management software to detect unknown, modified attack and vacant spaces.

Display different colored LED lights to differentiate between spaces (reserved, occupied, vacant or handicapped)
Line detection system to avoid improper parking.

175846237392Distance Measurement
Internet

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Ultrasonic sensor
Mobile app
Distance Measurement
Internet

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Ultrasonic sensor
Mobile app

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Expected Contribution to knowledge
The main contribution of this study is to introduce the most significant parking problem, finding an empty space and propose a solution. Ultrasonic sensors can be used both for parking space detection and improper parking detection. The proposed architecture for a parking detection system would decrease searching time for vacant spaces and reduce instances of single cars improperly parking across two spaces.
References
JANHVI, NIMBLE et al AUTOMATIC SMART CAR PARKING SYSTEM Volume-3, Issue-3, Mar.-2016)