Charles I was a thorn in the parliament’s side as he was extremely stubborn and refused to work with them. In 1629, Charles I suspended the parliament, bringing England close to absolutism. This wasn’t a very good plan as he quickly became broke after fighting the Irish and desperately needed the parliament to manage his finances. The parliament members were justifiably angry when they were recalled and the relationship between the two parties worsened. After 2 years of conflict, Charles I stormed the parliament to arrest the members. Most of them managed to escape and went to gather support for the civil war that was about to erupt. After three years of war, Charles I was finally captured but stubborn till the end, he refused to negotiate. Thus, he was promptly beheaded. Cue the Queen of Heart’s (as pictured) iconic line in the Alice in Wonderland movie, “off with his head!” After the beheading of Charles I, England was governed as a constitutional republic by Oliver Cromwell (1649-1658). It was not a radically different change but it was also not a monarchy. Within those years, Charles II who fled to France was invited back to rule with the condition to not raise revenues or pass any laws without the consent of the Parliament.