Chapter 5 5

Chapter 5
5.1 introduction
This chapter is about findings and recommendations. The researcher interpreted the findings in line with the reviewed literature. The discussion of the findings is in line with major research questions. This chapter gives the limitations and the implications of the study, the conclusion of the study, and recommendations by the researcher.

5.2 Study Limitations
The study was conducted at Langeloop village in Mpumalanga outside Malalane town. The data was collected from a sample of 7 males who are between the ages of 13 to 19 who are involved in gangsterism. The findings of this study can hardly be generalized to other geographic areas. Each community and, certainly, each gang has its own different factors that persuade their involvement.

It also should be noted that the results were self-reported. It is possible that gang membership itself was underreported or over reported in the study. However, self-reported data have been used broadly in gang studies to verify gang membership, and Esbensen et al (2007) determined that self-identification is a highly consistent indicator of gang membership.

5.3 Implications of the study
To help communities engage in prevention activities effectively, it is important to understand the role joining a gang may play in affecting an adolescent’s life course. Researchers and the community mostly regard gang membership only in the context of adolescence and, frequently, only in terms of involvement in crime and delinquency. The researcher found that adolescent gang membership has long-term consequences that extend beyond criminal activity, indicating that gang membership may have implications for public safety beyond personal harm.

The findings suggest that effective gang prevention efforts may result not only in reductions in adolescent problem behaviour but also in higher adult functioning across multiple domains. The researcher hopes that the results of this study will provide motivation for prevention scientists to develop, implement, and test effective programs to prevent young people from joining gangs.

5.4 Conclusion
Based on the study done, the researcher concluded that there is a great necessity to give more attention towards cases that are related to young delinquents who involve themselves in gangsterism. This problem need to be dealt with wisely to ensure that their future will not be compromised because of their involvement in gangsterism. Thus, parents, government, and society have to play their roles effectively in order to curb the spreading of gangsterism among teenagers. In addition, need to realize the consequence by each action or behaviour which taken by them. They have to be aware that each behaviour that deviant and forbidden to the law will cause them to be punished. As for parents, they need to give full attention to their children and guide them to the right path before things get worse and difficult to handle.

5.5 Recommendations
5.5.1 The Home
Parents must be educated on how to spot the signs of gang association, and how to work with their children to make gangs seem less glamorous. Parents must teach their children that joining a gang can ruin lives; lead to criminal records; and, ultimately, to prison. Most importantly, parents need to recognize the signs that their child is involved in a gang and seek the appropriate intervention.

Families need help to deal with their children who are at risk of joining gangs. Training in parental skills gives these parents the knowledge and ability to help their children stay out of trouble. Parents often tend to react strongly to the gang problem; therefore, the information provided to them must be balanced with helpful, hopeful strategies that they can use to turn their children away from gangs. Most law enforcement, school, and community-based providers agree that educating parents about gangs is necessary and critical if the growth of gangs is to be curbed. Law enforcement and educators need to work together to develop the necessary tools and materials to educate parents.

5.5.2 The School
In an attempt to keep gang problems under control, school programs should focus on identifying gang members, removing graffiti, resolving potential conflicts among gang members, and providing parents with information on gangs. Many schools today have strict dress codes to prevent the wearing of gang colors. Schools should have increased security and close their campuses to limit gang members from recruiting students. In some instances, schools should also use metal detectors to screen weapons at outdoor stadiums and after-school sporting events.

5.5.3 Community
Society also is one of the important elements to curb this matter. The society should provide information to the police, and by so doing, they automatically help the enforcer task to deal with gangsterism. With the cooperation from each member in the country, there is a high possibility that this social illness will finally find its remedy.

5.5.4 Intervention
Intervention is a very big part of reducing gang involvement. Stressed the importance of intervention because without it gang involvement will only reduce to a certain point. Father Boyle explained this very clearly. He commented that intervention is not focused on enough. The reason intervention is so important is that when kids grow up they will see all the people in gangs. The people in these gangs might be people these kids look up to, like brothers or other relatives. If better intervention programs are set up then hopefully, gang members will take advantage of their opportunity and quit being involved with gangs.
When gang members start leaving their gangs kids will see what is going on, will see how the gang hurt that individual’s potential for success, and will decide that gang involvement is not so glamorous and cool. Father Boyle works with the idea of intervention by getting jobs for gang members. He sets rules that they have to abide by to keep their jobs, which includes no gang banging and other gang related activities. He is trying to restore something that most gang members have lost, which is hope.

5.5.5 Enforcement
Enforcement is the thing that needs to be focused on the most by police and the government. It is something that community members want to see most from the law enforcement department.Therefore, government need to strict and regulate the available law, so teenager will be afraid to engage in gangsterism.