Caffeine brings stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and the caffeine intake is correlated to adverse health effects. Caffeine consumption may bring health benefits, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, liver function and diminishes the risk of developing some cancers. However, caffeine can lead to glucose tolerance deterioration. Caffeine intake more than 400mg per day will link to adverse health effects. Anxiety, restlessness, nausea and headaches are some of the examples due to excessive amount of caffeine intake. Inappropriate amount of caffeine consumed by children leads to insufficient sleep which brings impacts on their studies. Patients with heart diseases should avoid mixing alcohol with caffeine since both of the compounds may raise the heart rate and cause cardiac arrhythmias (Mejia & Ramirez-Mares, 2014).
Caffeine is a highly consumed psychoactive drug which brings potential impacts on inhabiting organisms. Study of caffeine exposure for 28 days on Ruditapes philippinarum species indicates that the defense mechanisms increase with increasing caffeine concentrations. Increasing caffeine concentration diminishes the energy reserves which is the glycogen needed to counter oxidative stress. In addition, caffeine impacts on aquatic environment in which it triggers oxidative stress in bivalves organisms. Exposure of caffeine towards bivalves may cause peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane due to the large amount of reactive oxygen species produced (Cruz et al., 2016).