Bruners (1977) thoughts regarding constructivism are strongly based on the knowledge acquisition through personal discovery and the process involved in this discovery. According to Bruner there are 3 modes of learning enactive, iconic and symbolic which although are progressive can be accessed by any learner at any time. It was this way of thinking that has led to the development of a spiral curriculum with different topics being revisited at different points in the learner’s development. Another strategy for effective learning that has come about from Bruner is called scaffolding. Scaffolding is a process whereby the teacher increases a student’s independence by gradually decreasing the amount of support they give in relation to the learner’s progress. This encourages the autonomous learning link to effective learning.