As a teacher I agree with the Piaget’s theory in which states that human intelligence is gained through actual experience and is considered a process over time. Furthermore, Piaget also stated that cognitive development is an advancing reorganization of mental processes as a result of life development and experiences in the individual environment. Therefore, Jean Piaget (1980) proposed the idea of the four stages of childhood cognitive development. These four stages of childhood cognitive development are called sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational.
He believe that children are constantly experimenting with activities such as shaking or throwing things, putting things in their mouths, and learning about the world. Through these experiences children go through his four stages of cognitive development in which are determined by age group. The benefits of Piaget’s cognitive development includes a comprehensive overview of how the brain and thinking develops as a typical child ages.
The first stages is called the sensorimotor stage which extends from birth to age two. In this stage, infants build an understanding of the world by integrating with experiences and developing both physically and cognitively skills. According to Wood (2012) “When baby is born, he or she starts developing both physically and cognitively ” It define how physical skills develop, such as, crawling, grasping, and pulling as well as general growth including developing of their cognitively skills and starting reacting to different motivations such as noise, movement, and emotions.
The preoperational stage begins between two years to seven years old, it consist of language, memory and imagination (Wood, 2012). This stage, a child begins to represent the world with words, image and drawing, for mentally, adding and subtracting numbers. Base on Piaget, Preoperational stage, children are able to use symbolic function, for example taking a broom and riding it saying that is a donkey. Furthermore, these stages usually engage in make believe and understand and express relationships between the past and the future.
In the concrete stage the age are between seven and eleven (Wood, 2012). This stage, logical reasoning replaces natural intellectual and children can start perform simple operations. In other words the children in this stage can take in other point of views, and more than one perspective. The limitation for this stage “they do not yet consider all of the logically possible outcomes and do not understand highly abstract concepts” ( Siegler, Alibali, 2005).
The last and final stage is formal operational stage, where children are between eleven to fifteen years of age. According to Wood (2012) “This stage are use symbol related to abstract concepts variable are thought of in systematic ways, hypothesis are formulated and knowledge about abstract relationships and concepts are present”. Piaget believes that they begin to think in abstract and logical ways, develop images of ideal circumstances and use logical reasoning to solve problems. For example, last stage define how
Therefore, Piaget elaborate of how child develop from one stage to another. There are four developmental stages that each of these children go through which
Piaget believes that these stage children focus their attention to narrowly ignoring important information; also they cannot accurately represent transformation and are able to only represent static situations (Alibali, Seigler, 2005).
By the end of the Sensorimotor stage, objects are separate from the self and permanent. Object permanence, the understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they are not seen, heard or touched is accomplished.
When a baby is born, he or she starts developing both physically and cognitively. Physical skills include crawling, grasping, and pulling, as well as general physical growth. However, as babies develop cognitive skills, they start thinking about their behaviors and reacting to different stimuli such as noises, movement, and emotions. This is what defines the sensorimotor stage.
For example, a baby might giggle or smile because he or she perceived something as funny or interesting. Giggling or smiling is an example of a reaction induced by cognitive development, so it would fall under the sensorimotor stage. To further understand the sensorimotor stage, let’s look at each of its sub-stages.