Abstract The Internet of Things

Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next coming technology revolution, and its purpose is to enable physical objects to connect intelligently through the Internet using sensors, software and electronics. The revolution of IoT has attracted great interest around the world in all fields. In Light of this, this essay is a comprehensive overview for IoT; moreover a general notion of IoT architecture is described, in addition to IoT applications and the real challenges, the essay highlights the main cornerstones of IoT technologies.

1.Introduction
From an historical perspective the term internet of things which is also shortly well-known as “IoT” and sometimes called internet of objects has appeared and was discussed by Carnegie Mellon University which has the first Internet-connection devices around early 1982, In 1991 academic places such as PerCom and Kemp in addition to Mark Weiser’s scientific paper explained this concept in contemporary term. ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Shrivastava;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;12;/RecNum;;DisplayText;1;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;12;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”;12;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Web Page”;12;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Shrivastava, Gulshan;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Handbook of research on network forensics and analysis techniques;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;9781522541011 1522541012;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;remote-database-name;/z-wcorg/;/remote-database-name;;remote-database-provider;http://worldcat.org;/remote-database-provider;;language;English;/language;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;1{Shrivastava, 2018 #12}.{Shrivastava, 2018 #12} {Shrivastava, 2018 #12}Also some research confirms that Kevin Ashton, Executive Director of the Auto-ID Center in Massachute Institute of Technology (MIT) is the first to describe this concept and introduced it for Procter ; Gamble during his 1999 speech ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Shrivastava;/Author;;Year;2018;/Year;;RecNum;12;/RecNum;;DisplayText;1;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;12;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”;12;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Web Page”;12;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Shrivastava, Gulshan;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Handbook of research on network forensics and analysis techniques;/title;;/titles;;dates;;year;2018;/year;;/dates;;isbn;9781522541011 1522541012;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;remote-database-name;/z-wcorg/;/remote-database-name;;remote-database-provider;http://worldcat.org;/remote-database-provider;;language;English;/language;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;1 .The year 2000 witnessed the first announcement by LG for Internet refrigerators plans. Further, it has become one of the most important notations in the technology field till this day and to future years. In Addition to that it’s one of the fastest developing concepts that take a high interest and is considered as an emerging technology which can convert the world to a smart world and change the way we live ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Stankovic</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>14</RecNum><DisplayText>2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>14</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>14</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Stankovic, John A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Research directions for the internet of things</title><secondary-title>IEEE Internet of Things Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>IEEE Internet of Things Journal</full-title></periodical><pages>3-9</pages><volume>1</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>2327-4662</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>2.

The IoT concept demonstrates the ability and possibility of things to interact, communicate and share data with one another without a human intervention or as a simplest as possible. However, there was no universally agreement among researchers on a formal or standard definition in worldwide to describe the term IoT and even the interpretation of the phenomenon itself. Following are some definitions from different researchers.

“The Internet of Things allows people and things to be connected Anytime, Anyplace, with Any-thing and Anyone, ideally using Any path/network and Any service.” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Perera</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>32</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>32</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>32</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Perera, Charith</author><author>Zaslavsky, Arkady</author><author>Christen, Peter</author><author>Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Context aware computing for the internet of things: A survey</title><secondary-title>IEEE communications surveys &amp; tutorials</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>IEEE communications surveys &amp; tutorials</full-title></periodical><pages>414-454</pages><volume>16</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>1553-877X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3
“An open and comprehensive network of intelligent objects that have the capacity to auto organize, share information, data and resources, reacting and acting in face of situations and changes in the environment” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Madakam</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>33</RecNum><DisplayText>4</DisplayText><record><rec-number>33</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>33</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Madakam, Somayya</author><author>Ramaswamy, R</author><author>Tripathi, Siddharth</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Internet of Things (IoT): A literature review</title><secondary-title>Journal of Computer and Communications</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Computer and Communications</full-title></periodical><pages>164</pages><volume>3</volume><number>05</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>4
“The “Internet of Things” refers to the concept that the Internet is no longer just a global network for people to communicate with one another using computers, but it is also a platform for devices to communicate electronically with the world around them.” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Castro</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>34</RecNum><DisplayText>5</DisplayText><record><rec-number>34</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>34</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Castro, Daniel</author><author>Misra, Jordan</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The internet of things</title><secondary-title>Center for Data Innovation, November</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Center for Data Innovation, November</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>5
IoT will be considered as a critical integrated infrastructure for different fields such as healthcare manufacturing, agriculture, education and many others; which work to transform their infrastructure to support IoT ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Stankovic</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>14</RecNum><DisplayText>2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>14</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>14</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Stankovic, John A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Research directions for the internet of things</title><secondary-title>IEEE Internet of Things Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>IEEE Internet of Things Journal</full-title></periodical><pages>3-9</pages><volume>1</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>2327-4662</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>2.Till this day, the world has deployed 5 billion smart connected things, and experts predicted that by 2020 there will be 50 billion or more connected devices worldwide that tend to make our life easier ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Thierer</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText>6, 7</DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Thierer, Adam</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Connected World: Examining the Internet of Things</title></titles><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Fremantle</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>27</RecNum><record><rec-number>27</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>27</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fremantle, Paul</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A reference architecture for the internet of things</title><secondary-title>WSO2 White paper</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>WSO2 White paper</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>6, 7. There are some considerations around the number of things that will be connected. The current architecture of the Internet is inconvenient to be used, thus a different architecture is required inable to accommodate the large number of connected objects ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Stankovic</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>14</RecNum><DisplayText>2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>14</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>14</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Stankovic, John A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Research directions for the internet of things</title><secondary-title>IEEE Internet of Things Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>IEEE Internet of Things Journal</full-title></periodical><pages>3-9</pages><volume>1</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>2327-4662</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>2. (Section 2) describe the IoT architecture. Through its tremendous benefits, abilities and flexibility, IoT has different applications to be suitable in any environment. An example of these applications is presented. (Section 3).Although IoT opens the door to a lot of Opportunities to facilitate our life, it also meets many challenges ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Chen</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>15</RecNum><DisplayText>8</DisplayText><record><rec-number>15</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>15</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Chen, Yen-Kuang</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Challenges and opportunities of internet of things</title><secondary-title>Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), 2012 17th Asia and South Pacific</secondary-title></titles><pages>383-388</pages><dates><year>2012</year></dates><publisher>IEEE</publisher><isbn>1467307726</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>8. This essay highlights some of these challenges (section 4). (Section 5) introduce some of IoT technologies. Finally (section 6) concludes the essay.

2. IOT Architecture
With considerations for the current and expected development in this area, many researchers are talking about the importance of having an architecture that fits the amount of connected things. In order to suit the internet of things such as networks, communication techniques and sensors .Also as a development of IoT architecture, several models are proposed, and sequences in levels ranging from three levels to four through five until six levels. Noticed there is no consensus that agreed universally on architecture for IoT, it was started with the traditional architecture that is considered as three layers which are perception layer, network layer and application layer. Then, the architecture was improved by adding levels starting at four levels and then five and reaching up to six levels as shown in Figure 1 which are described in details in the following subsections.

3.1 Coding layer
Coding layer is representing the foundation of IoT. Each thing in this layer is given a unique ID to identify and recognize it.

3.2 Perception layer
Perception layer is also called the recognition layer that deals with the sensor devices that detect and respond to inputs from physical environment and identify other smart objects then collect important and useful information and measure physical quantities such as light, pressure, sound humidity, temperature, speed, locations, etc., then convert them to digital information and pass them to the network layer.

Coding layer

Perception layer

Network layer

Middleware layer

Application layer

Business layer

Figure 1 Six-Layered Architecture of IoT
3.3 Network layer
This layer is the core essence of IoT and is similar to internet network. It is responsible for the communication and connecting to network devices, servers and other smart things. Furthermore, it receives the digital information from the perception layer and transforms it through transmission mediums such as Wi-Fi, Zibgbee and Bluetooth.

3.4 Middleware layer
It’s responsible for processing the information received from the sensor devices, which are important consideration for particular IoT that depends on sensor technology. Add to that it hides hardware details therefore enhances the interoperability of smart objects and makes it easy to provide different types of services. There are many open sources and commercials that provide middleware services like Oracle Fusion Middleware, MiddleWhere, FiWare and OpenIoT5.
3.5 Application layer
This layer manages and provides the services. Also it contains applications based on processed data such as the disaster monitoring, energy, transportations, environment, healthcare, supply chain, retail and many more endless applications. In addition it is very helpful in the large scale development of IoT. In other aspect, the main responsibility of application layer is to bind the major gab between the users and applications.

3.6 Business layer
IoT is fully managed through this layer, starting from the user privacy, strategies, business models, profit to all internet related research. ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Fernandes;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;31;/RecNum;;DisplayText;9;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;31;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”;31;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Fernandes, Earlence;/author;;author;Rahmati, Amir;/author;;author;Eykholt, Kevin;/author;;author;Prakash, Atul;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Internet of Things Security Research: A Rehash of Old Ideas or New Intellectual Challenges?;/title;;secondary-title;IEEE Security ;amp; Privacy;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;IEEE Security ;amp; Privacy;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;79-84;/pages;;volume;15;/volume;;number;4;/number;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1540-7993;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Fernandes;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;31;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;31;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”;31;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Fernandes, Earlence;/author;;author;Rahmati, Amir;/author;;author;Eykholt, Kevin;/author;;author;Prakash, Atul;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Internet of Things Security Research: A Rehash of Old Ideas or New Intellectual Challenges?;/title;;secondary-title;IEEE Security ;amp; Privacy;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;IEEE Security ;amp; Privacy;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;79-84;/pages;;volume;15;/volume;;number;4;/number;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;1540-7993;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;9 ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Fremantle;/Author;;Year;2014;/Year;;RecNum;27;/RecNum;;DisplayText;7;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;27;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”;27;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Fremantle, Paul;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;A reference architecture for the internet of things;/title;;secondary-title;WSO2 White paper;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;WSO2 White paper;/full-title;;/periodical;;dates;;year;2014;/year;;/dates;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;7
3. Applications of IOT
There are different areas in which smart applications have been developed. All of these applications are not yet readily available; however, researchers indicate that the potential of IoT to improve the quality of environment by using IoT applications such as environment protection, smart grids, smart health, fitness tracking, smart homes, smart cities, and smart world. In order to gather the data from the environment, the IoT applications need to have one or more sensors which are considered essential components of smart objects. Some examples of IoT are shown below.

3.1 Smart cities
The main role of smart cities is to improve the quality of services provided while minimizing operational costs and enhancing the use of public resources to solve problems that may face the people living in cities such as shortage of energy supplies and pollution etc. As a result, the more digital technologies expands, the smarter cities become. Water distribution, automated transportation and environmental monitoring are some examples of IoT applications for smart cities. Many cities have already started to apply IoT, Barcelona topped the list of smart cities, by focusing on the smart water and smart transportation systems. In smart water system, by using sensors on water tanks and water supply lines to measure the amount of rainfall and weather sensing and integrate all this information to assess the city’s water needs in local, industrial and agricultural activities. Also, Stockholm is an example of smart cities that have created smart parking by adding sensors at the parking sites where the driver can inquire about the nearest position through the GPS ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Kumar</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>36</RecNum><DisplayText>10</DisplayText><record><rec-number>36</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>36</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kumar, Mritunjay</author><author>Annoo, Km</author><author>Mandal, Raman Kumar</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Internet of Things Applications for Challenges and Related Future Technologies &amp; Development</title><secondary-title>context</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>context</full-title></periodical><volume>5</volume><number>01</number><dates><year>2018</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>10. R
3.2 Smart home
An application of IoT in our lives will be on smart homes considered as a feature that greatly facilitates our daily lives, Smart devices at home communicate with each other, so that remote home control using sensors which can help keep up the temperature, lighting, humidity, security and energy management. They will also be able to control household equipment such as refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines and others using the information that are collected from the sensors ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Miorandi</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText>11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miorandi, Daniele</author><author>Sicari, Sabrina</author><author>De Pellegrini, Francesco</author><author>Chlamtac, Imrich</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Internet of things: Vision, applications and research challenges</title><secondary-title>Ad hoc networks</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ad hoc networks</full-title></periodical><pages>1497-1516</pages><volume>10</volume><number>7</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>1570-8705</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11.

3.3 Smart traffic system
Imagine IoT is applied to traffic system. The smart traffic system has already been implemented in many countries, for example Spain and Singapore.
Huge results based on information from devices connected to Internet of things will help to improve traffic, driving and walking, reducing traffic jams and environmental pollution by implementing a vehicle tracking system, helping traffic flow implemented using Smartphone sensors such as accelerometers and GPS sensors, reporting traffic accidents, Lighting control, parking and other services using sensors and intelligent information processing systems.

3.4 Smart Agriculture
Notice that applying IoT successfully in agriculture will have great impact on farms and farmers. Smart farming is one of the fastest growing fields in IoT. Thus, through the use of intelligent techniques and devices that control , measure and sense for light, soil, moisture, fertilization and irrigation many useful uses of IoT will be met. This will lead to positive results in quantity, productivity, sustainability and overall production .In addition to reducing time and manual work, recognizing the diseases affecting plants and crops. Thus, improving the most important field to meet the food challenges of population growth as well as their contribution to economic growth ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sethi</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>30</RecNum><DisplayText>12</DisplayText><record><rec-number>30</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>30</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sethi, Pallavi</author><author>Sarangi, Smruti R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Internet of things: architectures, protocols, and applications</title><secondary-title>Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering</full-title></periodical><volume>2017</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>2090-0147</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>12. R
3.5 smart environments
In addition to including many smart areas inside it, the application of IoT in the environment will effectively contribute to the prevention of many environmental hazards and disasters. Through sensors, early detection of earthquakes, avalanches, forest fires, storms and weather forecasts ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sethi</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>30</RecNum><DisplayText>12</DisplayText><record><rec-number>30</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>30</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sethi, Pallavi</author><author>Sarangi, Smruti R</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Internet of things: architectures, protocols, and applications</title><secondary-title>Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering</full-title></periodical><volume>2017</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>2090-0147</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>12.

3.6 Smart Health Care
The application of IoT in the field of health helps in life saving .The patient health can be monitored by collecting health information and storing it to follow the status from different places and reporting emergencies in the early stages by using for example sensors in homes, which helps in the health of the elderly considered as an important segment which needs special care. Moreover, implementing IoT on their healthy lives helps them to monitor blood pressure, heart rate, etc. IoT also contributes to reducing human errors in the medical field and reducing frequent visits to clinics in terms of time and cost. Thus, it improves the general health and living conditions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Miorandi</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText>11, 13</DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miorandi, Daniele</author><author>Sicari, Sabrina</author><author>De Pellegrini, Francesco</author><author>Chlamtac, Imrich</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Internet of things: Vision, applications and research challenges</title><secondary-title>Ad hoc networks</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ad hoc networks</full-title></periodical><pages>1497-1516</pages><volume>10</volume><number>7</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>1570-8705</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Singh</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>25</RecNum><record><rec-number>25</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>25</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Singh, Dhananjay</author><author>Tripathi, Gaurav</author><author>Jara, Antonio J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A survey of Internet-of-Things: Future vision, architecture, challenges and services</title><secondary-title>Internet of things (WF-IoT), 2014 IEEE world forum on</secondary-title></titles><pages>287-292</pages><dates><year>2014</year></dates><publisher>IEEE</publisher><isbn>1479934593</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11, 13.
4. IoT challenges
There are many complications, issues and challenges of developing IoT the most fundamental are:
4.1 Security
Despite its good and important impact on the future of computing and communications, and hence the rapid transformation of the best way of life, IoT remains conditioned to the success of the main factor and the main challenge which is “security”. IoT connects many devices, this aids creating loopholes for malicious programs, creating a new security risk and many challenges. It was necessary to find ways to address these issues to provide security and stability for users PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5NZW5kZXo8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE3PC9ZZWFyPjxS
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 11, 14-16.

4.2 Privacy
In spite of the huge and many benefits of IoT, there are some concerns about the proliferation of smart devices which can lead to privacy loopholes. One of the most important issues kept in mind in IoT Since IoT will take over daily lives is the privacy that consider as one of the big challenge in IoT. Moreover, Users are concerned about their personal data and how to exchange it and keep it confidential with the expected increase of data exchanged among smart objects, there are many considerations for protecting data and exchanging them confidentially and keeping them from penetration. Many problems related to user privacy and network layer are caused by multiple devices that communicate using different networks. Moreover, the intelligence of these devices which can collect samples and distribute information among themselves, requires spreading in different parts of the world, thus exacerbating the problem unless strong and reliable encryption systems to address the privacy challenge correctlyPEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5NZW5kZXo8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE3PC9ZZWFyPjxS
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 11, 14, 15, 17, 18.

4.3 Scalability
Scalability is one of the main challenges to the IoT. As the number of things connected to the Internet increases, there is an increased need to scale and change networks, which requires some features to address this expansion to accept Internet requirements in terms of structure and protocols ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Miorandi</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText>7, 11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Miorandi, Daniele</author><author>Sicari, Sabrina</author><author>De Pellegrini, Francesco</author><author>Chlamtac, Imrich</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Internet of things: Vision, applications and research challenges</title><secondary-title>Ad hoc networks</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Ad hoc networks</full-title></periodical><pages>1497-1516</pages><volume>10</volume><number>7</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>1570-8705</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Fremantle</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>27</RecNum><record><rec-number>27</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>27</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Fremantle, Paul</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A reference architecture for the internet of things</title><secondary-title>WSO2 White paper</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>WSO2 White paper</full-title></periodical><dates><year>2014</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>7, 11.

4.4 Interoperability
There is a need to common standards to facilitate communication and interoperability among various Internet devices. This is due to the many differences between the Internet devices in terms of communication capabilities, processing capacity, information exchange and the availability of energy. The establishment of systems to enable these devices to cooperate and communicate with each other in an effective way is one of the main challenges facing IoT ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gazis</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>21</RecNum><DisplayText>15</DisplayText><record><rec-number>21</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>21</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gazis, Vangelis</author><author>Goertz, Manuel</author><author>Huber, Marco</author><author>Leonardi, Alessandro</author><author>Mathioudakis, Kostas</author><author>Wiesmaier, Alexander</author><author>Zeiger, Florian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Short paper: IoT: Challenges, projects, architectures</title><secondary-title>Intelligence in Next Generation Networks (ICIN), 2015 18th International Conference on</secondary-title></titles><pages>145-147</pages><dates><year>2015</year></dates><publisher>IEEE</publisher><isbn>1479918660</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>15.

4.5 Power consumption
Wireless networks face the problem of power consumption because the efficiency of sensors depends on the battery life. For this reason power consumption is considered as a challenge of IoT.

IoT is the development and extension of the tradition internet to provide many possibilities for communicating between things. With the continuous progress of IoT it is expected to affect everyday lifestyles but the way it will change and to what extent is unpredictable. So it will face many challenges. As well as its importance in our lives; it is an open area for hot topics in different research fields.

4.6 Fault Tolerance
The connected things in IoT are changed rapidly in unexpected ways, which requires a way to enable the related things to adapt to all changes. If one of the devices is fault, the system must serve the intended purpose.

4.7 Data management
The number of things connected to IoT produces a huge amount of data and reach each other from different resources that need to be analyzed, ingested, stored and processed which is one of the challenges facing the producers of this technology
5. IoT Technologies:
5.1 Wireless Sensor Network
A Wireless Sensor network (WSN) consists of a number of devices and interconnected objects connected to the Internet using sensors to exchange data between them .Wireless sensor networks are one of the most important elements in IoT in addition to that the remarkable development of wireless communication has led to the availability of small, low cost and energy efficient devices. The combination of these factors improved the viability of utilizing of wireless sensor networks made up of a large number of smart devices, allowing better data collection, analysis and processing ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Farooq</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>19-21</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Farooq, MU</author><author>Waseem, Muhammad</author><author>Mazhar, Sadia</author><author>Khairi, Anjum</author><author>Kamal, Talha</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A review on internet of things (IoT)</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Computer Applications</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Computer Applications</full-title></periodical><volume>113</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0975-8887</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Kaur</Author><RecNum>2</RecNum><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>2</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Kaur, Kiranpreet</author><author>Kaur, Komalpreet</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>ROLE OF RFID TECHNOLOGY IN INTERNET OF THINGS</title></titles><dates></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Lee</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>29</RecNum><record><rec-number>29</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>29</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lee, In</author><author>Lee, Kyoochun</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Internet of Things (IoT): Applications, investments, and challenges for enterprises</title><secondary-title>Business Horizons</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Business Horizons</full-title></periodical><pages>431-440</pages><volume>58</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0007-6813</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>19-21.

5.2 Cloud Computing
IoT is expected to rely largely on cloud computing as the most important part of it. In addition to its features, the cloud seems to be the only technology capable of effectively storing and analyzing all data .cloud computing is beneficial for developing IoT, As a result of the interfaced of cloud computing with IoT and smart devices used millions of sensors ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Aazam</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>16</RecNum><DisplayText>22, 23</DisplayText><record><rec-number>16</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>16</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Aazam, Mohammad</author><author>Khan, Imran</author><author>Alsaffar, Aymen Abdullah</author><author>Huh, Eui-Nam</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cloud of Things: Integrating Internet of Things and cloud computing and the issues involved</title><secondary-title>Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 2014 11th International Bhurban Conference on</secondary-title></titles><pages>414-419</pages><dates><year>2014</year></dates><publisher>IEEE</publisher><isbn>1479923192</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Botta</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>17</RecNum><record><rec-number>17</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>17</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Botta, Alessio</author><author>De Donato, Walter</author><author>Persico, Valerio</author><author>Pescapé, Antonio</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Integration of cloud computing and internet of things: a survey</title><secondary-title>Future Generation Computer Systems</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Future Generation Computer Systems</full-title></periodical><pages>684-700</pages><volume>56</volume><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>0167-739X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>22, 23.

5.3 Optical technologies
Optical techniques play an important role in the evolution of IoT by providing the primary carrier for the enormous amount of data generated by IoT across different networks. The fiber optic sensor has many features such as long distribution range, high sensitivity, electromagnetic shielding and it can be carried out in a harsh environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Farooq</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>19, 24</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Farooq, MU</author><author>Waseem, Muhammad</author><author>Mazhar, Sadia</author><author>Khairi, Anjum</author><author>Kamal, Talha</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A review on internet of things (IoT)</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Computer Applications</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Computer Applications</full-title></periodical><volume>113</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0975-8887</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Liu</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>18</RecNum><record><rec-number>18</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>18</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Liu, Yu</author><author>Dong, Beibei</author><author>Guo, Benzhen</author><author>Yang, Jingjing</author><author>Peng, Wei</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Combination of cloud computing and internet of things (IOT) in medical monitoring systems</title><secondary-title>Management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Management</full-title></periodical><pages>12</pages><volume>8</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>19, 24.

5.4 Networking Technologies
In IoT, the large numbers of connected things require high-speed and efficient networks, and therefore these networks have an important role to play in the success of IoT because it is responsible for the relationship between these things. Until this era, 3G and 4G networks are used in a wide-range transmission network. Mobile traffic can therefore be predicted according to its functions such as making calls and sending text messages. So, with the era of computing and the growing number of things connected to others, sure 5G will be needed to offer high speed and a much larger bandwidth ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Farooq</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>19</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”9e5vsw9t9rtdthepezbv9rsm2e2tfsvpxasf”>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Farooq, MU</author><author>Waseem, Muhammad</author><author>Mazhar, Sadia</author><author>Khairi, Anjum</author><author>Kamal, Talha</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A review on internet of things (IoT)</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Computer Applications</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Computer Applications</full-title></periodical><volume>113</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0975-8887</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>19.

5.5 Radio Frequency Identification
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) means the technologies that use transceivers to automatically detect objects. RFID has been used in many different applications. As for IoT it is considered as the main technology that makes things uniquely identifiable by digital identities. In RFID the data are sent and received by radio waves. also RFID consists of database, Information management software, tags which is the sender data piece and usually placed on objects and tags reader which receives the piece of information. RFID can replace the barcode because it already contains a scanner as well as its ability to handle large numbers of data collected by reader tags PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5FdmRva2ltb3Y8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDExPC9ZZWFy
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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 13, 21, 23-25.

6. Conclusion
IoT is the development and extension of the traditional internet to provide many possibilities for communicating between things. Talk about the Internet of things cannot be shortened; it is considered as a new, wide and complex area as a result of its association with several areas, the next era, which is not yet completed, but some of its features became clear through the smart things that began to appear and pave the way for the next technological revolution which is expected to affect everyday lifestyles, but the way it will change and to what extent is unpredictable. So it will face many challenges. As a result to its importance in our lives; IoT is considered as an open area for hot topics in different research fields. The main objective of this essay was to provide an overview of Internet of Things and its architectures, applications, challenges and backbone technologies.

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