“A New Nayong Pilipino Project

“A New Nayong Pilipino Project: An Interactive and Immersive Experience of Historic and Contemporary Philippine Culture and Heritage thru a Cultural Theme Park Complex”
A Thesis Proposal To The Faculty of
ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT
College of Engineering and Industrial Technology
In Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for the Degree of
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE
PRESENTED BY:
2016-102257
LETTER OF PROPOSAL
August 25, 2018
Engr. Armando P. Matias
Dean, College of Engineering and Industrial Technology
Boni Avenue, Mandaluyong City
Dear Sir,
Waterfronts are dynamic places by nature, a unique place where land and water meet. These are definite resource embodying the special history and character of each community. The needs of relaxation and the pursuit of leisure activities resulted in the forms of planning and architecture solution that expresses the human responses to lakeside or seaside. Waterfronts are often the most precious resource of a city and many people feel they are not alone and an owner of nature: from the dweller’s beautiful view to marine industry to waterfront development and esplanade.
In the Philippines that is composed of 7,641 islands that is divided into three island groups namely; Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao and with a coastline running of 235,973 square kilometers in length. The country’s archipelago has a rich diversity of attractions; beaches, rivers, waterfalls, mountains, caves and historical destinations where people may go to explore the luxurious pearl of the orient. Tourism makes an important role in the economy of the country. The higher the growth of tourism, it will impact on its economy.

In compliance to the requirements of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture, as a student it is my honor to submit my thesis proposal entitled “A New Nayong Pilipino Project: An Interactive and Immersive Experience of Historic and Contemporary Philippine Culture and Heritage thru a Cultural Theme Park Complex”for your approval.
The aim of this project is to design a Cultural theme park that will emphasize the rich and varied culture of the Philippines. Also to contribute to the department of tourism of the Philippines and in the site which is at Entertainment city in Parañaque by providing facilities that will accommodate local and foreign visitors in their needs and Entertainment satisfaction about the Philippine Culture and Heritage thru an Interactive and Immersive Experience.
It is understood that upon the approval of my proposal title, I shall proceed with my research work and submit it on specified deadline, justification in other requirements for the proposal attached.

I hope my abovementioned will meet your approval. Thank you.

Respectfully yours,
69857683500
Sagpang, Cezanne Victoria R.

Student
Recommended By:
-1206511557000
Ar. Marirose V. Vocal, UapHead, Department of Architecture
Approved By:
698510668000
Engr. Armando P. Matias
Dean, CEIT
Approval Sheet
This is to certify that I have supervised the preparation of and have read the “A New Nayong Pilipino Project: An Interactive and Immersive Experience of Historic and Contemporary Philippine Culture and Heritage thru a Cultural Theme Park Complex” prepared by Sagpang, Cezanne Victoria R. and that the said thesis proposal has been recommended for acceptance and approval for oral defense by the Thesis Evaluation Committee.

_____________________________
Ar. Marirose V. Vocal, UAP
Adviser
As members of the Thesis Evaluation Committee, we certify that we have reviewed and examined this thesis proposal with the grade of __________ and hereby recommend that it be accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements in AR049/ 049S – Architectural Design 10 for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architecture.

_________________________ ________________________
Panel Member 1 Panel Member 2
_________________________
Committee Chair
Acknowledgement
The Researcher
The author also wants to express his gratitude to Engr. Armando P. Matias, dean of College of Engineering and Industrial Technology for his effort to response in the study;
His adviser, Arch. Marirose V. Vocal, for the patience, encouragement and advises, for her precious time dealing to the researcher’s concerns and reccommendations, and in sharing her knowledge and thoughts in order to make these thesis success.

His academic educators, Ar. Joseph Perfecto Rea, Ar. Aristedes De Paz, Ar. Efren M. Berme, Ar. Wilfredo Fernando, and Ar. Patricia Mendoza-Getcha.

To the personnel of Department of Tourism in Vinzons-Ms. Florence G. Mago, Municipal Architect of Vinzons, Provincial Capitol of Camarines Norte, Registry of Deeds, and Assessors Department for accommodating him and patiently extended their hands in data gathering and research of the author.
To those special people, who have shown that they are indeed friends in need as well as deeds: John Adrian Guarina, Glester Decena, Ardino Anilao, Roey Simbulan, Julius Matias, Stephen Paul Deita, Oen Xyrell Rubico, Princess Micaela Cruz, Marian Jeanne Alsonado and Christian Jane Emocling.The researcher likewise, wishers to express his indebtness to the courtless persons here unnamed, who have contributed morally and materially in making the publication of this book possible.

To all of them, this accomplishment would not have been possible without them. The researcher’s wishes to extend his great acknowledgement. 
ABSTRACT
Theme parks can be defined as a subset of visitor attractions (Goeldner, 1999). Although theme park is a subset of visitor attractions, there are attributes that distinguish theme park from other kinds of visitor attractions in particular the entertainment attractions (Kemperman, 2000).

A theme park is a destination, which combines entertainment, food and beverage and shops, and an environment that is different from that found outside its gates. A theme is used to provide a focus for the design, development and operation of such a park. Thereby, a “Cultural Theme Park” is an amusement park which is themed on a particular culture, and all its rides, attractions as well as other elements of interest are based on ideas from that specific culture. In this study, the culture referred to is the Philippine Culture.

Based on the Harmonized National Research and Development Agenda (HNRDA) 2017 to 2022 of the present government administration, also a National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) Board approved project, A New Nayong Pilipino Cultural theme park project aims to focus on the Philippine Arts, History and Culture, reinventing the Nayong Pilipino cultural theme park for the 21st century. The proposed Cultural theme park is composed of six components: the themed zones, historical and cultural attractions, recreational attractions, retail attractions, site support facilities and administration and parking facilities. It will include an indoor facility that will house the themed zones interconnected with outdoor facilities to further the experience. The basic components of this theme park includes the Ticketing complex , Tourist information centers , areas for assistance to physically challenged and aged visitors , Shuttle bus station, Shopping streets , Dining facilities ,Plazas , Parking , Medical clinic ,Restrooms , Staff residence , landscaping all throughout the area. The location of the site is in Parañaque, Metro Manila specifically in the Entertainment City also known as Bagong Nayong Pilipino-Entertainment City or Expo Pilipino Entertainment City. The Project endeavors to be a world-class showcase and celebration of Philippine traditional and developing cultural and natural heritage thru a Cultural Theme Park.

Table of Contents
Part 1: The Proposed Problem1
Chapter 1. The Problem and Its Background2
Introduction3
Background of the Study5
Statement of the Problem14
Objectives of the Study15
Strategies16
Significance of the Study16
Scope and Limitation18
Assumption and Hypothesis19
Conceptual Framework20
Definitions of Terms21
Acronyms29
Chapter 2. Review of Related Literature and Studies30
Foreign Literature31
Local Literature37
Related Projects40
Comparative Analysis44
Chapter 3. Research Methodology48
Research Design49
Subjects of the Study51
Research Instrument 51
Validation of Research Instruments53
Survey Research and Administration53
Chapter 4. Presentation and Analysis of Data56
Presentation and Analysis of Data 57
Sectoral Data77
Data Management/ Presentation 85
Analysis and Interpretation of the Proposal 93
Identification/ Assessment of Needs93
Restatement of the Problem95
Recommendation95
Project Study96
Interrelationship Analysis100
Market Study105
Socio-Economic Study106
Income Generation107
Financial Analysis113
Technical Study114
Financial Study118
Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations121
Part 2: Site Identification and Analysis124
Chapter 6. Macro Site Analysis125
Introduction126
Physical Structure131
Transportation System 145
Utility Systems (Water, Power/Electricity, Communications,
Drainage and Garbage Disposal, Fire Protection)145
Population and Social Development156
Visual Appeal and Attractions161
Chapter 7. Micro Site Analysis171
Site Inventory172
Exact Location and Boundaries176
Size and Shape179
Site Selection Criteria 180
Climate Analysis184
Wind and Solar Analysis186
Traffic Flow Analysis186
Circulation Analysis187
Proximity Analysis188
Land Use and Zoning Requirements189
Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis204
Land Cost and Taxes206
Base Maps207
Chapter 8. Proposed Components213
Proposed Components 214
Graphical Spatial Translation
Bubble Diagram 219
Matrix Diagram 221
Building Massing223
Part 3: Architectural Design Program224
Chapter 9. Design Program225
Chapter 10. Concept Development236
Chapter 11. Synthesis241
Chapter 12. Presentation244
APPENDICES xii

7421533538515Part 1:
The Proposed Problem
00Part 1:
The Proposed Problem

center3036644CHAPTER 1
The Problem and Its Background
00CHAPTER 1
The Problem and Its Background

Introduction
Theme parks are designed to take us away from the everyday to a place where entertainment, architecture and landscaping all bring to life a special world. A “Theme park” can be defined as “a social artwork designed as a four-dimensional symbolic landscape, evoking impressions of places and times, real and imaginary” (King, 2000, pp. 837–839). The term is loosely applied within the industry itself, lumping true themed environments with more traditional, but culturally limited, amusement and thrill parks. Theme parks are different in origins, design, intent, and effect from the amusement park. Amusement parks are more on gearing towards the use of immediate physical satisfaction of the thrill rides including the stimulation of speed, the loft and drag of gravity, the rush of adrenaline sparked by the mimicked prospect of serious bodily harm. The theme park, on the other hand, is a total-immersion art form built to capture a coherent mind experience, one that owes more to film than physics.
Nayong Pilipino (The Philippine Village) through the former first lady Imelda R. Marcos’ cultural and tourism initiative, Nayong Pilipino was conceptualized as a one-stop tourist park containing the best attractions of the Philippines. Nayong Pilipino sought to collect and showcase key landmarks in the Philippines in a compact site. It was even considered as one of its kind in the south East-Asia during its time. This type of theme park has its theme on the Cultural aspect of a country, therefore a Cultural Theme park. Cultural theme parks like this in the are a good display and platform of what the Philippines has to offer, from its culture, heritage and history , what it is made of and the kind of people that resides here. It aims to provide a cultural experience that will be found in this facility like the different themed zones, a cultural and historical attractions.The Philippines is our country, we need to present what we have and we have to be proud of it, because if not us there is no other that will. This study aims to tackle the importance of having A New Nayong Cultural Theme Park and how it will be a key player to promote the Philippine Culture and revitalization of how these attractions will be presented.

Background of the Study
Nayong Pilipino
The Nayong Pilipino was conceptualized by then First Lady Imelda Marcos to be a cultural theme park showcasing Filipino culture. At its peak the park was divided into six different zones or “regions” namely; Ilocos, Cordillera, Tagalog, Bicol, Visayas and Mindanao.
It was considered the first theme park of its kind in Southeast Asia. It featured models of tourist destinations of the country such as the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayon_Volcano” o “Mayon Volcano” Mayon Volcano in  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albay” o “Albay” Albay province, the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banaue_Rice_Terraces” o “Banaue Rice Terraces” Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordilleras, the historic houses of  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigan” o “Vigan” Vigan,  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilocos_Sur” o “Ilocos Sur” Ilocos Sur, the Chocolate Hills of Bohol, and the Magellan’s Cross in Cebu.
The Museum of Ethnology was also hosted within the theme park which features mannequins in ethnic attire.

Old Nayong Pilipino Operation
The Old Nayong Pilipino, officially the Nayong Pilipino Cultural Park, was a cultural theme park near the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninoy_Aquino_International_Airport” o “Ninoy Aquino International Airport” Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Pasay, Metro Manila. The theme park itself, besides the Manila International Airport (now Ninoy Aquino International Airport) was opened in 1970. The theme park proper covered an area of 22.3 hectares (55 acres) while the whole property associated with the facility measures 45.9 hectares (113 acres). The Nayong Pilipino Foundation (NPF) is an organization that runs the theme park, was created under Presidential Decree 37 which assigned the land to the Nayong Pilipino Foundation (NPF) and prohibited its sale without the President’s approval.

It features miniature versions of the country’s top tourist attractions, like Mayon Volcano in Albay province, Banaue rice terraces in The Cordilleras, Vigan houses in Ilocos Sur, Chocolate Hills in Bohol, and Magellan’s Cross in Cebu.

In 2002, the Arroyo administration stopped the park’s operations following the conversion of nearly nine hectares of the property into a parallel taxiway and service road connecting Naia Terminals 2 and 3.

Nayong Pilipino briefly opened again on December 12, 2004 after a ?600 thousand clearing and renovation works. By this time among the attractions that still exists were the Bicol, Cordilleras, Ilocos regions, an aviary, a children’s playground, a picnic area and some lagoons. The reopening was done in line with the Christmas season but unfortunately the park was later closed again.
Nayong Pilipino Relocation
After the closure of the first Nayong Pilipino theme park, a new one was later opened at the Clark Freeport Zone in Pampanga. Nayong Pilipino sa Clark Expo (NPCE) is a cultural theme park situated on a 5.9-hectare land inside the Clark Freeport Zone in Pampanga. The park was inaugurated on December 22, 2007. NPCE showcases the rich tradition, custom and historic events of the Filipino people and is a representative of the rural Philippines. 
The new park hews closely to the original thematic concept of the old Nayong Pilipino in Pasay City. It features distinctly Filipino architecture through authentic replications of typical villages and representative houses, recreates the Philippines’ natural and scenic wonders in miniature and showcases the rich and colorful history and culture of an ethnically diverse people. In such set-up the theme park truly becomes a living museum as it simulates folkways in arts and crafts as well as in music and dance via cultural performances and exhibits, and re-enactments of local festivals and rituals. 
Theme Parks in a general context
Following Camp (1997) ‘a theme park can be defined as being an outdoor attraction which combines rides, attractions and shows; as being designed around a central theme or group of themes; and as being charging a pay-one-price admission fee to visitors’ (Page, 2000, p. 227). According to the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions ‘a theme park is an amusement park that has themed attractions, be it food, costumes, entertainment, retail stores and/or rides’ (Wong & Cheung, 1999, p. 320). Similar an attraction has been described as a ‘designated permanent resource which is controlled and managed for the enjoyment, amusement, entertainment, and education of the visiting public’ (Middleton, 1989, p. 229). What seems to distinguish theme parks from other amusement parks or from attractions is a core theme of the park which runs through all or many park attractions. The theme becomes the main part of the experience. Although theme parks were thought of offering visitors one major theme, today most of them contain multi-themes in terms of different attraction points or themed areas (Wong & Cheung, 1999).Executive Order no. 58
On the 29th day of September 2011, former-president Benigno S. Aquino III ordered thru E.O No. 58 to mandate the transfer of Nayong Pilipino foundation’s Pasay property to the Manila International airport Authority (MIAA).

WHEREAS, the Nayong Pilipino Foundation, Inc. (NPF) through Presidential Decree No. 37 (1972) was given a 45.9 hectare property located in Pasay City on a portion of which the Nayong Pilipino Cultural Park (NPF Park) was built;
WHEREAS, Executive Order No. 111 (S. 2002) authorized the transfer of 8.6 hectares of the NPF property to the Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA), and the closure of the NPF Park pending its redevelopment;
WHEREAS, Executive Order No. 135 (S. 2002) mandated the streamlining of the NPF, directing the abolition of all permanent positions and the termination of all casuals and contractuals while retaining a transition team to look for an alternative site for a new NPF park;
WHEREAS, Executive Order No. 615 (S. 2007) mandated the transfer of the old NPF Park to the 15-hectare property of the Philippine Reclamation Authority (PRA) in Parañaque City and the transfer of 15 hectares of NPF’s Pasay property to the PRA;
WHEREAS, Section 7 (c) of Presidential Decree No. 37 (1972) provides that the parcel of land given to the NPF shall ipso facto revert to the National Government if the NPF is dissolved or ceases, for any reason, to undertake its objectives, or ceases to need the land for any reason;
WHEREAS, it is the declared policy of the State to promote and maintain a viable, efficient, dependable and safe air transportation system as an effective instrument for national recovery and economic progress;
WHEREAS, the MIAA needs the remaining 22.3 hectares of NPF land for the expansion of Terminal 2 to the north and the development of the New International Cargo Terminal Facility to support the operation of Terminal 3 to accommodate growth in the passenger and aircraft movement at the Ninoy Aquino International Airport; and
WHEREAS, Section 7(a) of Presidential Decree No. 37 (1972) provides that the land occupied by the NPF shall not be transferred to another person or entity without previous authorization by the President of the Philippines.

The Site: Entertainment City
Entertainment City MANILA (also known as Bagong Nayong Pilipino Entertainment City) or previously Pagcor City is Asia’s Las Vegas-like gaming and entertainment complex that PAGCOR proposed to offer on 8km of land on the reclamation area of Manila Bay, Philippines. It lies the western side of Roxas Boulevard and south of SM Corporate District (SM Mall of Asia), part of Parañaque City. The project is officially named as the “Bagong Nayong Pilipino-Entertainment City”, and has been called several other names by the press. The most common name being referenced is “Entertainment City Philippines”. The project is officially named as the Bagong Nayong Pilipino-Entertainment City through an executive order by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and has been called several other names by the press. The most common name being referenced is “Entertainment City”. The site has been declared a PEZA-approved economic zone and in 2017, President Rodrigo Duterte named Entertainment City as Expo Pilipino Entertainment City will be named after the exposition for the centennial of the independence of the Philippines in 1998 called Expo Pilipino.
Statement of the Problem
Lack of a dedicated Cultural theme park in and around the city meeting the increased demand. The proposed Cultural theme park would provide wholesome entertainment activities for the entire family, catering to children, teenagers and adults.
Need to boost up the Tourism Industry in the Philippines. The Cultural theme park would also increase tourist footfalls in other tourist locations of the state, thereby giving a major boost to the entire tourism sector at large.
Due to the rising middle class ; Increased Affordability, Increase in Tourist customer is expected through developing this project. The catchment area for the proposed park would not be limited in Parañaque or Philippines but would also attract tourists from different foreign countries.

Objectives of the Study
To Promote the Culture and Heritage of the Philippines thru building a cultural theme park that aims to showcase and celebrate the Filipino Culture.

To provide an additional urban leisure activity by designing a theme park to project a healthy image of urban tourism.

To design a cultural theme park that will manifest the governing laws and will be designed with accordance to, such as National Building Codes of the Philippines.
1.5 Strategies
Making use of digital advancements
In today’s world our technological advancement is undoubtedly increasing. We are able to cope with our everyday needs by innovating our technology. Nowadays, we live in a world where different technologies like the digital technology and internet, which is one of the main and massive source of information that millions of people use and depend on every day, that we should make use of in order to remain fresh and suitable of today’s generation.

Focus on Education and Entertainment, “Edutainment”
Many edutainment tools may make use of delightful mascots or characters, either digital or in real-life films, in order to sell the entertainment value of the product. Edutainment is very much an issue in developing modern digital and hybrid curriculum for the supplementary educational use.

The theme park concept
The theme park will be centered on Cultural, Historical and heritage of the Philippines with adaptation on new technologies suited for the 21st century users therefore a New Nayong Pilipino Cultural theme Park.

In general, theme parks can be defined as a subset of visitor attractions. Visitor attractions are described as permanent resources which are designed, controlled and managed for the enjoyment, amusement, entertainment, and education of the visiting public .

Different types of attractions features within the natural environment (Open areas, Green Areas); man-made buildings, structures and sites that were designed for a purpose (Convention Centers, Exposition Centers, Museums etc.), structures and sites that were designed to attract visitors and were purposely built to accommodate their needs, such as special events (sporting events, markets). The main features that distinguish theme parks from other kinds of visitor attractions are:
a single pay-one-price admission; charge; the fact that they are mostly artificially created; the requirement of high capital investments.

Variety of use
To be able to accommodate the attractions thru providing permanent and temporary attractions.

1.6 Significance of the Study
The socio-cultural environment of theme parks
The impact of theme park operations can bring both benefits and problems to the local society and its cultural patterns. A theme park in an area generates contact between residents and visitors. Sometime this can be problematic in areas where the traditional cultural pattern of the residents differs extremely from that of the visitors of a park but it will help them learn and undertand more about our culture. Tourism in an area may improve the living standards of people and help pay for improvements to community facilities and services if the economic benefits of tourism are well distributed.

Tourism Promotion
Theme parks are built in order to meet the demand of tourists diversified entertainment and planning the activities creative way form of modern tourism destination (Guanzhi Dong, 2000). Under the background of the creative economy, theme park is a tourism economy complex syncretizing creative elements. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) predicted, theme park is one of the three trends of the development of international tourism right now and in the future. In the United States, the geographical location of large scale theme park is the key to success. Therefore, the research on time-space layout of theme park has great practical significance.

Three general areas of interest: The first area is ‘theme park as product’, including categories of thematic identity, cultural heritage, and lifecycle. The second area is coded as “theme park as industry”, including categories of management, competitive strategies, the tourism industry and the creative industry. The third area is coded as “theme park as city infrastructure”, including categories of urban planning and the local economy.

Revitalization of Nayong Pilipino
To design Nayong Pilipino Cultural theme park to focus on showcasing Filipino culture to both foreign and local people especially. Culture is not biologically passed from older generations to the newer ones. It is learned through experience. The members of a culture share certain ideals which shape their lives. The future generations learn to follow the same ideals. Culture propagates through generations, which adopt their old customs and traditions as a part of their culture.

1.7 Scope and Limitation
Scope
Cultural theme park- The Park will be focused on the theme of showcasing the culture and heritage of the Philippines thru creating themed zones that will provide an immersive and interactive experience of visitors inside the proposed them park. This theme park will not be your typical theme park because its gives more importance to the visitors immersion to the culture that we have unlike the normal theme park that focuses on areas for amusement and recreation.

Historical, Cultural and Recreational Attractions- To provide Entertainment, education and promotion of the Philippine culture by giving the visitors a taste of our very own culture through these attractions. It also may make way for the possibility of the visitors to dig deeper about our rich culture that helps promote tourism. The eagerness to know the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those people, their art, architecture, religion, and other elements that helped shape their way of life.

Retail attractions – To provide areas here visitors can buy and shop for a variety of souvenirs and other necessary things.

Site Support Facilities-To provide support in the operation of the whole theme park and to maintain its smooth run. Basic facilities includes the Ticketing complex , Tourist information centers , areas for assistance to physically challenged and aged visitors , Shuttle bus station, Shopping streets , Dining facilities ,Plazas , Parking , Medical clinic ,Restrooms , Staff residence , landscaping all throughout the area.

Administration facilities – To provide offices for the administration that will concentrate on the day-to-day activities of the theme park. Activities like Financial department, record keeping and billing, personnel and staffs, logistics of the whole park.

Parking Facilities – The complex will provide parking facilities that will accommodate the parking needs of visitors during their stay inside the park.
Limitations
The projects impact is limited to the theme of Culture and Heritage of the Philippines since it is centered in giving education and entertainment about it with both local and foreign visitors simultaneously. Also this research has set its boundaries to cover mainly the architectural aspects of the project with limited structural, mechanical, electrical, marketing and other non-architectural analysis.
1.8 Assumption and Hypothesis
Theme parks has become a popular urban leisure activity, and the theme park is frequently used to project a healthy image of urban tourism. The popularity of theme parks draws academic attention to examining various issues related to the theme park sector. In this Study the researcher found the opportunity to design a theme park, not just a theme park but a New Nayong Pilipino Project which is a Cultural theme Park that will focus mainly on the Philippines Cultural heritage and History to empower its presence in the socio-economic aspect of our country. The Cultural theme park which will be comprised of different zones that will try to spread and satisfy the cultural education and entertainment of both local and foreign tourist and visitors. As it will be a showcase of the how the Filipinos are proud of what we are and what our culture is all about. Therefore investing in this project will boost cultural tourism and promote the unique culture of the Philippines that will strengthen our sense of cultural identity that needs to be spread and preserved.

1.9 Conceptual Framework
The overall framework for the assignment is explained in the chart below.
1532534164592Assessment of the theme Park Industry in the Philippines
00Assessment of the theme Park Industry in the Philippines

1.10 Definitions of Terms
The following is a general overview of the terms and terminology you will encounter in this research. The terms are a combination of those you will see in theater, engineering, theme park operations, architecture and more. These terms are defined to be able to communicate effectively with the various disciplines that will be involved.

Attraction – such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes
Animated Prop – A Prop in a show set that has movement (animation).

Back Stage – Any area usually off limits to guests.

Costume – The uniform worn by a theme park employee. Especially while working in a themed environment.

Cultural theme park – a Theme park focused on the Cultural aspect as its main theme
Dark Rides – Typically, these small rides were composed a ride vehicle of 2-6 riders, a track that winds through a series of theater flats and painted sets, separated by “bump” doors. Dark rides are the staple of a theme park because they are story-oriented rides and generally focus on a storytelling experience.

Department of Tourism – Executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the regulation of the Philippine tourism industry and the promotion of the Philippines as a tourist destination
Design Development – Schematic Designs are refined and many changes are finalized or refined to a nearly permanent condition.

Dispatch – A dispatch occurs each time a ride vehicle is launched from the load platform.

Dispatch Interval – The time between dispatches.

Entertainment – Actors, singers, dancers, characters and other show-oriented performers.

Footfalls – other term for the number of people entering a store or shopping area in a given time.

Foreign – of, from, in, or characteristic of a country or language other than one’s own.

Immersive- characterized by deep absorption or immersion in something (such as an activity or a real or artificial environment)
Interactive – allowing or relating to continuous two-way transfer of information between a user and the central point of a communication system
Line – The People standing waiting for their turn to ride on an attraction.

Merchandise – The department responsible for the selling of goods at retail locations.

Nayong Pilipino – Theme park dedicated to Filipino history & culture.

Nayong Pilipino Foundation – organization created by the government. It is an autonomous government corporation under the Department of Tourism.

On Stage – Any area that a theme park guest can see.

Operator – The employee who operates an attraction.

Parks – are prominent in communities all over the world. A park can be defined as an outdoor space made available to the public, often provided by a public agency, for the benefit of the citizens of a community, state, or country
Peak Hours – the busiest hours
Pre-show – Builds the story prior to the actual attraction.

Pulse – Sometimes rides allow a large group of guests to enter an attraction or queue all at the same time. This is called a pulse system. Usually associated with a pre-show.

Queue – The serpentine building or holding area where the people stand. Queue Rail – Railing used to define a queue.

Queue Rope – Rope used to define a queue.

Reclamation – the cultivation of waste land or land formerly under water.

Retail Outlets – Some park areas offer retail outlets, pro shops, or gift shops that serve as core product extensions. 
Set Dressing – Items on a set which are not actually used by anyone but which make it look more realistic (e.g. curtains over a window, a bowl of flowers on a table, and so on).

Static Prop – A Prop in a show set that does not move.

Show Scene -A show scene is a set design translated for use in a theme park attraction. A theme park attraction is usually broken up into a series of show scenes. Each one of these scenes is meant to tell a single story. Sometimes there may be a single show scene for each room. Sometimes a single room can have multiple show scenes. The scene includes the set design, props, animatronics, lighting, f/x, and architecture.

Show set – Synonymous with “show scene.” A set or series of sets specifically designed to advance the storyline of a theme park experience.

Spiel – The story or narrative told by an actor while performing on a theme park attraction. Usually over a microphone.
Tourism – is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination
Theme park – offer an entertainment experience that attracts visitors. Though this description could apply to other parks, a theme park is a constructed facility that doesn’t usually rely on natural features.
Theming – Any prop, set, or otherwise extraneous material used in creating a themed environment.
Visitors – End users, can be referred as local or foreign
Wait Time – The time spent waiting in line for an attraction.

1.11 Acronyms
The following are acronyms and abbreviations you will encounter in this research. These terms are expanded to be able to know what it stands for and to communicate effectively with the various disciplines that will be involved.

DOT – Department of Tourism
NPF – Nayong Pilipino Foundation
PRA – Philippine Reclamation Authority
center12299CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature and Studies
00CHAPTER 2
Review of Related Literature and Studies

Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides an overview of previous research on literary contents that the researcher believes that will provide support information. It introduces case studies and other resource of information that comprises the main focus of the research described in this thesis. These are some facts and information gathered by the researcher, which were used as a basis and foundation to support the study.

Electronic Media
Through the use of internet, the researcher was able to gather information through various types of Literatures that will support the proosed research.

Governing Literatures
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 37 November 6, 1972
CREATING THE NAYONG PILIPINO FOUNDATION
WHEREAS, it is deemed necessary to create a foundation which will promote, encourage and initiate research and development projects and activities in social sciences, humanities, social and amelioration and allied fields
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 58
MANDATING THE TRANSFER OF NAYONG PILIPINO FOUNDATION’S PASAY PROPERTY TO THE MANILA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY
WHEREAS, the Nayong Pilipino Foundation, Inc. (NPF) through Presidential Decree No. 37 (1972) was given a 45.9 hectare property located in Pasay City on a portion of which the Nayong Pilipino Cultural Park (NPFPark) was built;
EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 135
MANDATING THE STREAMLINING OF THE NAYONG PILIPINO FOUNDATION, INCORPORATED
WHEREAS, the Nayong Pilipino Foundation, Inc. through Presidential Decree No. 37, issued on May 21, 1969 was created primarily to promote Philippine Art and Culture, aims principally to undertake, promote, encourage and initiate the development of projects in social sciences and humanities and established parks and recreation centers for the promotion of tourism; 
2.1 Foreign Literature
Does authenticity exist in cultural theme parks? A case study of Millennium City Park in Henan, China
By Duan, Xialei & Chan, Chung Shing & Marafa, Lawal. (2018).

Authenticity has always been a salient concept in tourism studies. Most previous studies focused on cultural heritage sites while much less research was conducted on man-made attractions. Given the importance of authenticity in the tourism industry, this research investigates different authenticity concepts in a unique context: a Chinese cultural theme park. Millennium City Park is a typical cultural theme park in Kaifeng, Henan, China, and was chosen as the case study. This study identifies the perception of authenticity from the perspectives of both park managers and park visitors. It is found that visitors value authentic experience in the experience economy. Authenticity plays an important role in the tourism industry, in which activity-related authenticity is more important to visitors than object-related authenticity in cultural theme parks since visitors prefer more participation and involvement during their visits. It is suggested that park planners emphasize cultural elements in various products in cultural theme parks.

Success Model Setting for Historical, Cultural Theme Park Development -With an Example of Korean Culture Theme Park. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association.
Kwon, Ki-Chang. (2015)
A theme park is a complex space, in which held is a performance & exhibition event created to make visitors feel fun and a deep impression through a certain theme. Recently, local governments are increasingly planning for theme parks with the aim of local economy revitalization. Accordingly, this paper set up a development model for a Korean culture theme park after deducting success factors for creating a successful theme park through the case of Korean culture theme park. To be concrete, this paper deducted the success factors through literature research and case research as follows: Setting of themes having identity and consistency; programs that can give fun and a deep impression; convenient support facilities reflecting customers` needs; differentiated marketing for progress in customer attraction power; location linked with cultural resources around a theme park and a space for communicating a message; privately-initiated project promotion and the main body of operation; target setting consequent on market segmentation, and demand forecast, etc. A theme park cannot be successfully operated to contribute to local economy revitalization until such success factors should be closely linked and harmonized with each other. In addition, in order for a theme park to make a continued growth, it`s required that problems occurring at the operational stage should be endlessly improved, and contents strengthening should be continuously done in line with circumstances of the times and viewers` eye level.

Visitors’ brand loyalty to a historical and cultural theme park: a case study of Hangzhou Songcheng, China. Current Issues in Tourism.

Cheng, Qian ; Fang, Lin ; Chen, Huazhen. (2015).

Conducting research on the factors affecting brand loyalty to theme parks is an important method for enhancing brand loyalty among tourists. This paper takes the Hangzhou Songcheng historical and cultural theme park as a case study. Hypotheses are proposed and structural equation model is constructed based on tourist perception theory. Findings show that theme park brand satisfaction is related to brand loyalty through brand attachment and historical and cultural performance. The quality of facilities and attractions has no significant correlation with perceived value and brand satisfaction. The service quality of attendants also has no significant correlation with tourist perceived value.

Success factors of theme parks – An exploratory study
Birgit Pikkemaat and Markus Schuckert (2016)
Theme parks are important products for the leisure and tourism industry but the analysis of their critical success factors seems to be a neglected area in leisure and tourism research. Most authors agree that authenticity as well as the staging of experiences is a main factor influencing consumer’s decision to buy a leisure or tourism product. Thus, this paper discusses authenticity and the staging of experiences as critical success factors for the management of theme parks. Empirical data gathered from personal interviews with theme park managers in Austria, Germany and Switzerland reveal the assumption that the literature is not in line with the critical success factors of theme park management. The paper concludes by outlining future research on success factors of theme parks as well as implications for their management.

33782036639500
28448013469400
2.2 Local Literature
The Cultural Heritage-Oriented Approach to Economic Development in the Philippines: A Comparative Study of Vigan, Ilocos Sur and Escolta, Manila
Geoffrey Rhoel Cruz , Mapua Institute of Technology (2017)
Goal 11 of the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals prescribes that culture matters. However, the case of Escolta, Manila presents otherwise. This paper investigates the ways how cultural heritage can be a driver for economic development in the Philippines following the Van Der Borg and Russo’s (2005) Culture-Oriented Economic Development (COED) framework. It stresses the interrelationship of inner cultural cluster dynamics, economic impacts, and socio-environmental impacts which provides for a cycle composed of culture promoting development and in return development fostering culture, then leading to development.

2.3 Related Projects
2.3.1 LOCAL PROJECTS
For every research, there is a need to study and observation on the existing projects to provide information and guidance for the study to be successful. Each Theme parks and Cultural theme parks has their own unique characteristics in terms of its design and themes to their intended users. The following are some projects found in the Philippines.

PROJECT NAME: The Old Nayong Pilipino
LOCATION: Pasay City Metro Manila, near the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ninoy_Aquino_International_Airport” o “Ninoy Aquino International Airport” Ninoy Aquino International Airport 
AREA: The theme park proper covered an area of 22.3 hectares (55 acres) while the whole property associated with the facility measures 45.9 hectares (113 acres).

THEME: Filipino Culture
OWNER: Nayong Pilipino Foundation
OPERATION STATUS: Opened in 1970, closed down 2002, re-opening partially in 2004, closed down .DESCRIPTION: Officially the Nayong Pilipino Cultural Park, was a cultural theme park . The themes and attractions included was conceptualized by then First Lady Imelda Marcos to be a cultural theme park showcasing Filipino culture. At its peak the park was divided into six different zones or “regions”; Ilocos, Cordillera, Tagalog, Bicol, Visayas and Mindanao. It featured models of tourist destinations of the country such as the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayon_Volcano” o “Mayon Volcano” Mayon Volcano in  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albay” o “Albay” Albay province, the  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banaue_Rice_Terraces” o “Banaue Rice Terraces” Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordilleras, the historic houses of  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vigan” o “Vigan” Vigan,  HYPERLINK “https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilocos_Sur” o “Ilocos Sur” Ilocos Sur, the Chocolate Hills of Bohol, and the Magellan’s Cross in Cebu.
The Museum of Ethnology was also hosted within the theme park which features mannequins in ethnic attire.
right1714500PROJECT NAME: Nayong Pilipino Clark, Pampanga
LOCATION: Clarkfield, Pampanga in a portion of the Clark Expo, formerly Expo Pilipino.

AREA: 6-hectare (per Clark website)
THEME: Filipino Culture
OPERATION STATUS: Formally opened in November 2007
DESCRIPTION:
right1333500PROJECT NAME: Nayong Pilipino in Rizal park
LOCATION: located in Luneta , Metro Manila .Padre Burgos Avenue cor, Finance Road. This is just before the Museum of the Filipino People (in Finance Road) and The National Museum.

THEME: Cultural Theme Park
OWNER: National Park Development Committee  (NPDC)
OPERATION STATUS: still operating
DESCRIPTION: The place used to be operated under the Clean and Green Foundation which was a pet project of then former first lady Mrs. Amelita ” Ming” Ramos in late 1992 . The place used to be a vacant parking space allotted to the Department of Finance before it was  the National Park Development Committee  (NPDC) the one in charge of Rizal Park  had taken jurisdiction of the place. The place was developed by the foundation and opened to the public in late 1994 with several man made waterfalls, butterfly area,  mini aviary ,  hanging bridge, fishing facilities , rock wall climbing  , an art gallery and a fine dining outlet  ( Lush Life) operated by Barbaras.  
right58881PROJECT NAME: People’s Park
LOCATION: Davao City
AREA: 4 hectares
THEME: Urban park / Cultural theme park
OPERATION STATUS: Formally opened in 2007
DESCRIPTION: The four-hectare People’s Park of Davao City mirrors the rich culture of the city, and the lifestyles of the Davaoeños. The beautiful park features with tropical rainforest trees, large sculptures, interactive and dancing fountains, ponds and man-made waterfalls, kids playground, a shady and open plaza, and a statue of a gigantic Philippine eagle and the Durian dome.

The park houses more than 1,000 species of plants and trees from the rainforests of the Philippines, Southeast Asia , Australia, New Guinea, South and Central America, and Africa and Madagascar.

While a cultural landmark such as the People’s Park can be anything from the visual perspective, this particular place is most renowned as the “greenest and cleanest among all parks in the country.”
PROJECT NAME: Enchanted Kingdom, often abbreviated EK
LOCATION: Santa Rosa, LagunaAREA: 25 hectares (62 acres).

THEME: Fantasy theme park
OWNER: operated by Enchanted Kingdom Inc.

OPERATION STATUS: still operating; opened 19 October 1995
DESCRIPTION: Enchanted Kingdom is a member of the International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions (IAAPA).

The initial design of the park, which was presented to the Mamons by the consultants they brought in, was heavily inspired by Philippine architecture. The concept was not chosen since the Mamons preferred a fantasy-oriented design. Mario Mamon stated that if the initial design was used instead, it would result in visitors seeing what they see “outside in their normal lives” which he remarks would “sort of break the magic”.

The rides and attractions of the park are scattered across seven themed zones. The zones are Victoria Park, Portabello, Boulderville, Midway Boardwalk, Brooklyn Place, Spaceport, and Jungle Outpost. Victoria Park, which includes the main entrance, is patterned after the Victorian era. Boulderville is a small ride area for children which is similar to the fictional town of Bedrock from The Flintstones. Midway Boardwalk is based on 1930s Coney Island and features the most rides. Jungle Outpost is based on the Amazon Jungle in South America. Spaceport is dedicated to the Space Age. Brooklyn Place is based on 1940s New York and the silent film era. Finally, Portabello is based on the Caribbean/West Indies.
Future zones planned include a zone dedicated to the amusement park’s mascot, Eldar, as well as a zone focusing on Philippine culture, dubbed as the Cultural Zone, which recalls the initial concept for the park.

-582106472011Chapter 2:
Review of Related Literature
00Chapter 2:
Review of Related Literature
2.3.2 FOREIGN PROJECTS
Common examples of theme parks are Walt Disney World, Disneyland, Six Flags America, Holiday World, and Kings Island. These types of parks are operated by a management system and are designed to produce a profit. 
Disneyland Parks
Since this is preliminary research on evaluating quantification of cultural elements of theme parks, it was critical to choose which theme park to research. We chose to analyze a specific theme park, which has expanded globally—Disneyland. The blueprint and content of Disneyland parks vary based on the location of the park. One of the most obvious ways to note the cultural differences is by analyzing the experience sections, landscape, attractions, restaurants, and shops of each park. Such data can allow us to understand the connectivity of visitor’s passage, utilization of theme park spaces, and distribution of theme park contents to analyze detailed information of what and why visitors visit Disneyland parks in various countries.

Results show that there are clearly differences between Disneyland parks in various countries to reflect and meet cultural norms. Each of the six Disney theme parks has different types and percentages of theme park contents, and different walking passages connecting the theme park areas.

The Magic Kingdom or the Wizarding World of Harry Potter at Universal Orlando
The difference between a theme park and an amusement park is the theme. Amusement parks are just collections of rides and games, while a theme park is meant to put visitors into a fantastic place where reality is temporarily suspended to some degree. The Magic Kingdom or the Wizarding World of Harry Potter at Universal Orlando (universalorlando.com) are theme park sections designed to do exactly that. This suspension of reality and a well-conceived theme is key to their success.

 The Magic Kingdom is a chain of themed areas at Universal Parks ; Resorts based on the Harry Potter media franchise, adapting elements from the Warner Brothers’ film series and original novels by J. K. Rowling. The areas were designed by Universal Creative from an exclusive license with Warner Bros. Entertainment, a Time Warner company.

2.4 Comparative Analysis
The Nayong Pilipino Foundation had multiple areas for the Nayong Pilipino theme parks, one is located in Clark, Pampanga in the Clark Freeport Zone the other is the Nayong Pilipino located in Luneta. If we compare this with the first Nayong Pilipino constructed which is the one located in Pasay near the NAIA airport, it’s a lot smaller. Nayong Pilipino in Clark Pampanga, it’s the bigger one that is still operating it presents the Philippine culture through miniatures of known Philippine house, churches and other historically significant symbols through replicas. The park hews closely to the original thematic concept of the old Nayong Pilipino in Pasay City. It features distinctly Filipino architecture through authentic replications of typical villages and representative houses, recreates the Philippines’ natural and scenic wonders in miniature and showcases the rich and colorful history and culture of an ethnically diverse people. In Mindanao, there is a park called People’s Park and is said to be the most renowned as the “greenest and cleanest among all parks in the country.”
Other one is the Enchanted Kingdom, although not a cultural theme park it is one of the known and successful theme parks in the Philippines. It’s stays relevant through updating its amusement rides so visitors coming will have something to look forward to and to add more excitement. Compared to other countries , the Philippines still lack on the number of operational and successful Theme parks. Incomparable to some countries like in the U.S. in various factors especially number of visitors and also the number of parks that they have.