1524001274445004352925000EIX2001 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PAPER

1524001274445004352925000EIX2001
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH PAPER :A Comparative Study between Malaysia and Bangladesh
Prepared by:
NO. NAME MATRIX NO.

1. INTAN MAZNI BINTI MADZLAN EIA160046
2. NURSYAMIHA BINTI MAHAMOOD EIA160158
3. NURUL ALIA BINTI ABDUL RAZALI EIA160161
4. NURUL AQILA BINTI ISMAIL EIA160162
5. SYASYA NURHIDAYAH BINTI AB RAHMAN EIA160204
SUBMITTED TO: DR. MEHEDI MASUD
SEMESTER 2 (2017/2018)
TABLE OF CONTENT
TOPIC PAGE
1.0 Abstract 3
2.0 Introduction 4 – 5
3.0 Research Background 6 – 7
4.0 Literature Review 8 – 10
5.0 Research Methodology 11
6.0 Results and Discussion 12 – 45
7.0 Recommendation and Conclusion 46
8.0 References 47-48
1.0 ABSTRACT
In this research paper, we are conducting a research on Comparative Study between Malaysia and Bangladesh. This research is important for the analyst to know the latest studies of Bangladesh and Malaysia. For this study purpose, a secondary data are used. The secondary data collected from the World Bank website. The researcher used World Bank data as the instrument for data. Based on the result, we can perceive that from the comparative study between Malaysia and Bangladesh, there are five main indicators are used to compare both countries which is education, health, infrastructure, economy and gender.

First is education that can be explained by government expenditure on education, gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, female and male (% of relevant age group), and unemployment with intermediate education male and female. Second, health where the variables are population growth (annual %), male population (% of total), female population (% of total), total life expectancy at birth (years), infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) and under five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births). The third indicator is infrastructure that can be measured by fixed broadband subscription, electric power consumption (kWh per capita), secure internet servers and renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters). Next indicator is economy that can be measured by exports of goods and services (% of GDP), total reserve (include gold, current US$), inflation and consumer prices (annual %), GDP growth (annual %), gross savings (% of GDP) and foreign direct investments and net inflows (% of GDP). The fifth indicator is gender includes percentage of female and male contribution in employment and percentage of female and male contribution in family worker.

All of those indicators have relationship and significant to compare the development in Malaysia and Bangladesh. The time series of all the indicators we collected are within 1960 to 2017 but some indicators have no data on certain years.

2.0 INTRODUCTION
The term “development” in international terms includes the need and the means to provide a better life for people in poor countries. This includes not only focus in economic growth, but emphasize also on human development such as providing health, infrastructure, nutrition, education, and the environment. According to the World Bank, about one-quarter of the world’s human lives equals less than $ 1.25 a day and also half of the world’s six billion inhabitants live less than $ 2 a day (Chen & Ravallion, 2008). Meanwhile, people in the 20 richest nations get an average of 39 times more than people living in the poorest 20 nations (Milanovic, 2007). In this research paper, we will study a comparison between Malaysia and Bangladesh on development perspectives.
The purpose of this research paper is to know how we recognize the differences in current achievement between Malaysia and Bangladesh in various aspect. In addition, we also identify on how to examine the barriers faced in achieving better development in a country and how a comprehensive study of the resources and characteristics that must exist in the development of a country is carried out. In this research paper, there are five main indicators that will be examine for both of the country. There are economic growth, infrastructure, education, health and gender. Both countries have numerous project of development but the level of implementation different.
In Bangladesh, the Government has made the policy and instructed school management to be supportive towards special needs children. But the Government effort can be considered as planning stage rather than implementation. A large number of migrant workers from Bangladesh come to Malaysia. It is well known that due to some structural national inequality, a bulk of unemployed labor-force from Bangladesh temporarily migrate to many foreign countries including Malaysia seeking temporary employment in different work-organizations.
In term of education, the comparison between Malaysia and Bangladesh showing that Bangladesh has to face many challenges to reach to the stage where Malaysia is now. Teachers Training Division in the ministry of Malaysia provides regular pre-service and in-service teacher’s training to meet the demand for mainstream teachers general and specifically special education teachers (Hoque et al)(2013). In Bangladesh, the MoE has not supplied any teacher for special needs children since the introduction of the program. Pre-service teachers have limited scope to study on special needs subjects in different Government Institutes such as IER of Dhaka University and teachers’ training colleges.
In terms of gender, girl’s enrolment is little high in Bangladesh but in Malaysia boys’ enrolment is slightly high. According to a study, it found there has almost equal level of understanding on principal humanistic concerns of professionalism of future medical doctors. For Infrastructure facilities, it is a comparative study revealed that Malaysia have introduced the concept of ‘Multimedia super corridor’ and ‘Technology Park’ to develop IT industry based on software development. But, it different with Bangladesh which the government has not yet formulated the plan. (Jegathesan et al. 1997). In terms of economic growth, with an average growth rate of 5.8 per cent per year, it has seen Malaysia have had strong growth over the last three decades (Bank Negara Malaysia, 2013) while for Bangladesh economy has experienced major changes in the last two decades. This change has been due to the rapid development of clothing industry, which has also helped diminish poverty and increase women’s intake.

3.0 RESEARCH BACKGROUND
According to the IMF, Bangladesh’s economy is the second fastest growing major economy of 2016, with a rate of 7.1% compare with in 2014, and it country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is averaged at growth of 6.5%. Besides according to World Bank, Bangladesh have known globally by its considerable success in reducing poverty and advancing in development. It economy have grown at more than 6% compare with previous year that driven to reducing extreme poverty to 13.8% in 2016 from 44.2% in 1991. In addition, Bangladesh is strategically important for the economies of Northeast India, Nepal and Bhutan as Bangladeshi seaports provide maritime access for these landlocked regions and countries. However, the economy still faces challenges of infrastructure bottlenecks, insufficient power and gas supplies, bureaucratic corruption, political instability, natural calamities and a lack of skilled workers. In term on development, some experts have explained this discrepancy by attributing Bangladesh’s social development to the success of innovative, low-cost solutions such as microfinance programs that target women, massive social mobilization campaigns spearheaded by NGOs like BRAC, the success of the labor-intensive, export-based garments industry, and the boost to earnings and human capital provided by labor migration and inward remittances
Since its independence, Malaysia has been one of the best economic records in Asia, with its GDP growing at an average of 6.5% per annum for almost 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fueled by its natural resources like rubber tree and palm oil which are the main of country’s exporter. In addition, Malaysia also one of the few developing countries that heavily subsidies education and healthcare. Malaysian citizens are entitled to free public education up to secondary level and public tertiary education fees are subsidized by up to 90%. Moreover, government also gives priority on healthcare by providing basic healthcare services at government run clinics with prescription cost RM1. Disabled, senior citizens and public-school students are entitled to free healthcare. Malaysian healthcare services have been regarded as among the best in the world and the UN Development Program called the Malaysian healthcare system “a model to other developing countries.

Development in infrastructure have been improve from time to time. Recently, the government in Bangladesh have took steps towards improving its infrastructure by pouring foreign reserves into infrastructure funds. Further, an increase in commitment from government by ensuring that these large-scale projects will be fund continuously and in transparent manner. These will result in further improvement in the future development on the country. On the other hand, Malaysia have been known on its diversified economy with strong manufacturing industry. The rapid infrastructure development across the country have proven that Government remain focus on preparing future well-being for its citizens. Currently, Malaysia had been working on advancement in public transport such as high-speed rail (HSR) that linking Malaysia and Singapore together with Mass rapid Transit (MRT). Mohd Redza Abdul Rahman, the head researcher of MIDF Amanah Investment Bank Bhd have expected that this project can provide many benefit to people directly or indirectly.

According to new report on the Asian Development Bank (ADB) together with collaboration with BRAC Institute of Government and Development, Bangladesh’s women have made progress in various aspect such as health, education and work but still face with gender gaps. Current report on Bangladesh Gender Equality is designs to aim as the guideline of gender features of ADB support to project in 4 sector which focus on skills, vocational and tertiary education together with development in energy, transport and urban development. While in Malaysia, there in gender inequality in term of education and command over economic resources dimensions. On a whole, Malaysia’s GDI value is slightly below compare with its HDI. In labor force, participation rate was at modest 54.1% (out of total 9.9 million potential women labor force). Women participation in the workforce found a pattern suggest that suggested Malaysian women older than the age of 26 are more sensitive to life-cycle transitions as compare to other countries in the world. Additionally, Malaysian women also retire earlier than their male counterparts.
Health levels remain relatively low although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased. However, in rural area, health is still poor. There was little training on “modern medicine” compare with urban area. A Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing. Receiving health care from informal providers is encouraged. In rural area, there were found that there still has a gender difference in treatment-seeking behavior, with women less likely to seek treatment than to men. The use of skilled birth attendant (SBA) services have rose among women from all socioeconomic quintiles except the highest. Bangladesh’s poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. The government spending on healthcare was little compare with total country GDP. Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.

4.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
In Malaysia, the Ministry of Education (MOE) have provides teacher training for regular pre-service and in-service. According to Hoque et al. (2013), the training are to enhance the teachers to meet the demand for mainstream teachers general and specifically special education teachers. This also to furnish the teachers with adequate knowledge and skills in improving an effective learning process by the students. MOE have their own vision in order to improve the teachers’ knowledge and skills in specific areas of special education such as managing Individual Educational Plan (IEP), sign language skills, Braille skills, speech therapy, mobility, and others as needed to assist them in teaching. This encourage special education teachers to give more attention to the special students that directly can achieve their real potential nevertheless of their disabilities.

Meanwhile, Bangladesh’s MoE has not yet provide any teachers for the special needs children. The inadequate scope to study on special needs subjects experienced by the pre-service teachers in various Government Institutes such as IER of Dhaka University and teachers colleges. Mahbub (2012) explained the contents of pre-service teachers’ topics for special needs is inadequate as there is no reflection in their ‘Lesson Plan Preparation’. This is also because there is insufficient initiatives by the government for the in-service training mainly in special needs education. The issues are worsen when that teachers are not ready but the students are already enrolled. This shown that the teachers are interested to teach but they do not have enough the skills and knowledge as they have no training on conducting special needs students (Rahaman, 2012).

Also, it is noticed that the government spends less than 2% of GDP on education. Consequently, Bangladesh’s ranking is among the lowest among South Asians countries (Mehedi, 2018). The dropout is a process rather than an event that starts at the beginning of the school life with high absenteeism. In Bangladesh, dropout rate (29.7%) is higher and implies inefficiency in the education system. One of the cause is due to the high pupil teacher ratio (1:50) and management inefficiency (Hoque et al., 2011). On the other side, Malaysia dropout rate (0.03%) is negligible that associated with the efficiency of the management of education. Malaysia Education Blue Print (2013-2025) visibly stated about their success in this range that “Programmes and initiatives to develop non-academic components” are present both during formal class time as well as through a variety of after school co-curricular activities.
In term of gender’s perspectives, girls’ enrolment is little high (1.02%) in Bangladesh compared to Malaysia where boys’ enrolment is slightly higher (1.08%). According to a finding, gender stereotypes have been found in the sample textbooks. It shown that Malaysia textbooks have more equal representation of female and male that Bangladesh. Women in Bangladeshi textbooks are more described in range of professional roles such as teachers and lawyers. The traditional society emerged in Bangladesh which the society is saturated with the patriarchal values of female subordination and segregation. The poor educational achievement of women illustrates performance of women in job market. The involvement of women in civil servant is only headed by 1 to 51 government ministries and there are only 2 women among the nation over 300 senior bureaucrats (Islam, 2000).

(Rashila, 2000), women in Malaysia had occupied in full ministerial positions that includes Minister of Women and Family Development, Minister of International Trade and Industry and Minister of Welfare and National Unity. Moreover, they also fill other significant governmental positions such as deputy ministers, political secretaries, diplomats, senior civil servants and senators in Dewan Negara. In parliament, there are 20 women out of 193 members of parliament.

Looking at infrastructure aspects, a study have revealed that Malaysia have leads ahead in term of IT industry based on software development. Malaysia have introduced the concept of ‘Multimedia super corridor’ and ‘Technology Park’. However, Bangladesh is different which the government has not yet formulated the plan (Jegathesan et al., 1997).

Based on fixed broadband subscriptions, generally it can be interpreted that fixed broadband subscriptions on both countries which are Bangladesh and Malaysia keep increasing from time to time as stated in the World Bank Data, 2016. At the early year, Malaysia have keeps increasing rapidly until reached at certain level of subscription, then keep decline. While Bangladesh, fixed broadband subscriptions remain increasing. Besides, electric power consumption kWh per capita in Malaysia and Bangladesh shown that Malaysia consumption data keep fluctuated but still much higher than Bangladesh which is keep rising but in lower rate. Next, secure Internet server data shown that Malaysia have great achievement in internet server compared Bangladesh. . In between year 2012 and 2013, Malaysia’s internet servers still rise but in lower rate. However, after year 2013 the data going back rising rapidly until reached 2016 (3320).Finally, renewable internet freshwater resources per capita in Malaysia keep decline but still much higher than Bangladesh which increasing at lower rate. In 2014 which the recent data from World Bank (2018), Malaysia leading with 19187.50 cubic meters of renewable internet freshwater resources per capita while Bangladesh with 658.698386 m3.

In Bangladesh, the budget for health expenditures is only 0.8% of GDP that make a huge range differences between Malaysia. Malaysia have allocated the health expenditure with 7.11% (Ministry of Finance, 2011). Hence, people in Bangladesh have limited medical care due to shortage of doctors and nurses. Recently, the ratio is 5.5 doctors and 2.1 nurses per 10,000 people. The ration clearly show that poor medical conditions has caused people have insufficient of health care management. The lack of medical care leads their people to lose trust to their doctors. Hence, many wealth people travel to Singapore, India and US for better medical treatment (Mehedi, 2018). The outcome cause deprivation suffered by poor people with inadequate treatment, care and nutrition that important for mental growth.

The numbers of doctors in 2015 is 46,491 and increase to 50,087 persons in 2016. The difference between 2015 and 2016 have shown a rise of 7.7% numbers of doctors in Malaysia. The ratio of doctor to population 2016 is 1:632 that was resulted an increase compared to previous year which was in 2015 with 1:671. In addition, the numbers of hospital and clinic have increase in 2016 compared to previous year that was stated by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The numbers of hospital in Malaysia are 152 in 2015 and increase to 153 in 2016 (Department of Statistics, Malaysia, 2017).

In addition, the progress of economy sector in Malaysia and Bangladesh are measured in many different ways. The measurement are including the GDP growth, exports of goods and services, inflation, foreign direct investments, and total reserves. According to World Bank (2016), the GDP growth of Malaysia is 4.22% while Bangladesh is 7.11%. Besides, the exports of goods and services also one of the important factor that contribute to the progress of an economy of a country. Malaysia mainly have achieved 67.67% of exports of goods and services while Bangladesh have gained 16.65% as been stated in World Bank (2016). Furthermore, the inflation also take into account to measure the economy of the country. The inflation that happen in Bangladesh is much higher which is 5.51% compared to Malaysia with 2.13% in 2016 as been clarified by the World Bank.

5.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research is conducted using archival research which is based on the administrative records and document as a source of data which can be both recent and historical. The data is take from The World Bank Data. The data which is collected for the different purposes and analysed to determine the implications of the same. Every findings are related to the topic that we want to discover.

The data is a quantitative data from The World Bank Data. The aim is to classify the features, count them, construct statistical models is an attempt to explain the observed. The data must be more efficient, able to test hypothesis, but more contextual detail. The method that we use is documentary analysis that involves obtaining data from the existing data without having to question people through interview, questionnaire or observe their behaviour.

But some of our research method have weakness also strength. The weakness of this approach is some of the data is not complete like the year that we want to examine is not stated. From that we have other alternative to avoid worst pitfall on the data.

The population of the data is citizen of Malaysia and Bangladesh. The sample of the data is focused on five indicators which is health, gender, infrastructure, education and economics. We take data from The World Bank Data from year 1970-2017 which we consider as a recent data.

Quantitative data analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Excel Office 365.the quantitative data collected was coded and entered to IBM SPSS to pave way for easy analysis. The findings were presented with the help of tables and graph alongside the descriptive statistical indicator. The coded data permitted the reduction of error analysis, the uses of likert scale permitted the easiness of quantitative data analysis.

Lastly, we interpret the tables and graph using economics term that be more understand and the objective are achieved which is comparison study between Malaysia and Bangladesh.

6.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Education
In education, we take a look comparison between Malaysia and Bangladesh into a few aspects such as government expenditure on education, gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, female and male (% of relevant age group), and unemployment with intermediate education male and female. The time series for this result is within 2006 to 2016.
Government expenditure on education
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Malaysia 4.49 4.37 3.96 5.97 4.97 5.76 5.74 5.48 5.21 4.98 4.83
Bangladesh 2.13 2.20 2.05 1.94 .. 2.13 2.18 1.97 .. .. 2.50
Table 1
LINK Excel.Sheet.12 “C:\Users\syasyanurhidayah\Desktop\Data_Extract_From_World_Development_Indicators (2).xlsx” “Gov Expenditure on Edu (GDP)!R28C6:R30C17” a f 4 h
Figure 1
Source: worldbank.org
In figure 1 and table 1, it show that a government expenditure on education within 2006 to 2016. Firstly, as we can see from 2006 to 2016 a total percentage of government expenditure on education for Malaysia are bigger than Bangladesh. The highest number of percentage that Malaysia spent on education is on 2009 with 5.97% while for Bangladesh the highest percentage of government expenditure on education is on 2016 with 2.50%. Other than that, 2010, 2014 and 2015 there are no data recorded for Bangladesh in the World Bank. As we can see on the graph, Malaysia’s graph a more fluctuated than Bangladesh. For example, for Malaysia from 2008 to 2009, government expenditure increases quite large which is about 2.01% which is from 3.96% to 5.97% respectively, but it is drop to 4.97% in 2010. Then, government expenditure slightly rises from 2010 to 2011 with 4.97% to 5.76% respectively. But it is different from Bangladesh, as we can see the graph is little fluctuated. In 2006 and 2011, Bangladesh’s government spent same amount of expenditure on education with 2.1. The more government spent on education, a country will develop very well.

Unemployment with intermediate education, female.
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Malaysia ..     4.44 3.87 3.37 3.64 3.42 3.07 3.54 3.9
Bangladesh 5.49     .. 6.03 .. .. 4.53 .. .. 7.63
Table 2
LINK Excel.Sheet.12 “C:\Users\syasyanurhidayah\Desktop\Data_Extract_From_World_Development_Indicators (2).xlsx” “Unemployment (F)!R15C2:R17C11” a f 4 h
Figure 2
Source: worldbank.org
Based on table 2 and figure 2 show that result of unemployment with intermediate education for female within 2006 to 2016. It shows that Bangladesh has highest percentage of unemployment with intermediate education within 2006 to 2016 as compared to Malaysia. The highest is on 2016 with 7.63% while Malaysia is only 3.9%. In addition, there is no data stated for Bangladesh in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015. In addition, in 2006, 2007 and 2008 there is no data stated for Malaysia. Based on the data, we can see that unemployment rate with intermediate education for female in Bangladesh is higher than Malaysia. There are a few factors that cause their unemployment rate getting higher year by year. An increasing in unemployment rates will affect nation’s economy. Government must take an action and do something to prevent this unemployment rates from getting increase
Unemployment with intermediate education, male. LINK Excel.Sheet.12 “C:\Users\syasyanurhidayah\Desktop\Data_Extract_From_World_Development_Indicators (2).xlsx” “Unemployment (M)!R15C2:R17C11” a f 4 h * MERGEFORMAT

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Malaysia .. .. .. 4.71 4.01 3.5 3.7 3.59 3.25 3.72 4.1
Bangladesh 6.79 .. .. .. 6.56 .. .. 6.98 .. .. 9.71
Table 3

Figure 3
Source: worldbank.org
Based on Table 3 and Figure 3, it show that result of unemployment with intermediate education for male within 2006 to 2016. The highest percentage of unemployment with intermediate for male within the period is Bangladesh with 9.71% which in 2016. While in 2010, the lowest percentage of unemployment rate in Bangladesh only 6.56%. It shows that year by year the number of people are jobless or unemployed increasing. While for Malaysia the highest percentage of unemployment with intermediate education for male is in 2009 with 4.71%. Furthermore, the lowest percentage of unemployment with intermediate that recorded in the World Bank is Malaysia with 3.25% in 2014. There is no data recorded for both of countries in 2007 and 2008. As we can see on the graph, Malaysia’s graph is fluctuated which from 2009 to 2011, the pattern of graph is decreasing and rises a bit in 2012. Then, its decrease back in 2014 and keep increase after that. When unemployment rates in the country high, it is not good for the country.
Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Malaysia 95.81 100.33 95.71 97.48 97.60 100.50 102.25 105.06 104.99 102.31 106.25
Bangladesh 121.72 103.73 105.23 110.15 113.04 125.39 .. 122.05 .. 112.89 102.45
Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, female
Table 4
LINK Excel.Sheet.12 “C:\Users\syasyanurhidayah\Downloads\Data_Extract_From_World_Development_Indicators.xlsx” “Gross(F)!R17C1:R19C12” a f 4 h * MERGEFORMAT

Figure 4
Source: worldbank.org
Based on the Table 4 and Figure 4 show that a result of gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education for female within 2006 to 2016. Clearly, on the graph Bangladesh is higher than Malaysia on gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education for female except for 2014 and 2016. The highest percentage of gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education for female for Bangladesh is in 2011 with 125.39% while Malaysia is in 2016 with 106.25%.

There is no data recorded in World Bank for Bangladesh in 2012 and 2014. The pattern of Bangladesh’s graph on gross intake in first grade of primary education for female is not consistent. As on the graph, from 2006 to 2008, it is decreasing then follow from 2009 to 2011 the graph is increasing with quite big percentage. And starting from 2011 to 2016, the graph keep decreasing. For Malaysia, although the graph also not very consistent but the differences percentage from year to year are small.
Gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education, male.

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Malaysia 96.18 100.11 95.00 96.75 97.04 99.48 101.30 104.95 104.66 101.99 104.59
Bangladesh 117.63 101.26 102.79 105.38 110.20 126.15 .. 120.68 .. 112.66 98.39
Table 5
LINK Excel.Sheet.12 “C:\Users\syasyanurhidayah\Downloads\Data_Extract_From_World_Development_Indicators.xlsx” “Gross(M)!R21C6:R23C17” a f 4 h * MERGEFORMAT

Figure 5
Source: worldbank.org
Based on the Table 5 and Figure 5, its show that gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education for male within 2006 to 2016. A pattern of the graph quite similar to women category. On average, Bangladesh is still has higher percentage of gross intake ratio in first grade of primary education for male than Malaysia. There is no data recorded for Bangladesh in 2012 and 2014. Quite similar to the result of gross intake in first grade of primary education for female, this male category’s graph for Bangladesh is not constant. The highest percentage of gross intake ratio in first grade primary education for male for Bangladesh is in 2011 with 126.15% while for Malaysia is in 2016 with 104.59%.

Health
In health, we do a comparison between Malaysia and Bangladesh into a few aspects such as population growth (annual %), male population (% of total), female population (% of total), total life expectancy at birth (years), infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) and under five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births). The time series for this result is from 1960 to 2016.

Population growth (annual %)
Years Population growth (annual %) Years Population growth (annual %) Years Population growth (annual %)
Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh
1960 3.06 2.85 1981 2.40 2.72 2002 2.09 1.84
1961 3.15 2.85 1982 2.35 2.69 2003 2.00 1.75
1962 3.21 2.86 1983 2.38 2.67 2004 1.95 1.63
1963 3.18 2.90 1984 2.49 2.67 2005 1.91 1.49
1964 3.07 2.99 1985 2.65 2.68 2006 1.87 1.34
1965 2.90 3.10 1986 2.82 2.69 2007 1.83 1.21
1966 2.73 3.24 1987 2.95 2.68 2008 1.81 1.13
1967 2.58 3.32 1988 3.00 2.64 2009 1.81 1.10
1968 2.47 3.23 1989 2.94 2.57 2010 1.82 1.12
1969 2.41 2.94 1990 2.82 2.47 2011 1.84 1.15
1970 2.39 2.54 1991 2.69 2.36 2012 1.85 1.17
1971 2.36 2.09 1992 2.57 2.27 2013 1.82 1.18
1972 2.34 1.75 1993 2.50 2.20 2014 1.74 1.16
1973 2.34 1.61 1994 2.49 2.16 2015 1.62 1.12
1974 2.37 1.72 1995 2.51 2.15 2016 1.50 1.08
1975 2.42 2.01 1996 2.54 2.14 1976 2.49 2.35 1997 2.55 2.11 1977 2.55 2.61 1998 2.51 2.07 1978 2.57 2.77 1999 2.43 2.02 1979 2.54 2.82 2000 2.31 1.96 1980 2.48 2.78 2001 2.19 1.90 Table 1

Figure 1
Source: worldbank.org
Table 1 and Figure 1 shows the population growth of Bangladesh and Malaysia from 1960 to 2016. Population growth counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The trend for both countries Bangladesh and Malaysia are fluctuated.
For Bangladesh, the highest population growth annually is in 1967 where the population growth is 3.32 percent. And the lowest population growth for Bangladesh is in 2016 which is 1.08 percent. As for Malaysia, the highest population growth is at 3.21 percent in 1962. While the lowest population growth is in 2016 which is 1.50 percent.
For the total population growth, Bangladesh has the highest and lowest population growth compared to Malaysia throughout the years which is 3.32 percent in 1967 and 1.08 percent in 2016. As we can see, from 1986 to 2016 , Malaysia population growth is higher than Bangladesh even though the trend is decreasing for both countries.

Population male (% of total)
Years Population, male(% of total) Years Population, male (% of total) Years Population, male (% of total)
Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 51.68 50.91 1981 51.02 50.54 2002 51.02 51.05
1961 51.63 50.90 1982 51.05 50.53 2003 51.00 51.11
1962 51.58 50.88 1983 51.09 50.52 2004 50.97 51.18
1963 51.53 50.87 1984 51.12 50.53 2005 50.93 51.24
1964 51.47 50.85 1985 51.14 50.56 2006 50.87 51.31
1965 51.43 50.83 1986 51.14 50.61 2007 50.79 51.37
1966 51.39 50.80 1987 51.14 50.68 2008 50.71 51.43
1967 51.36 50.78 1988 51.13 50.76 2009 50.63 51.48
1968 51.33 50.75 1989 51.12 50.83 2010 50.57 51.54
1969 51.30 50.72 1990 51.11 50.88 2011 50.53 51.58
1970 51.26 50.68 1991 51.10 50.90 2012 50.50 51.63
1971 51.22 50.65 1992 51.09 50.91 2013 50.49 51.66
1972 51.18 50.62 1993 51.07 50.91 2014 50.47 51.68
1973 51.14 50.59 1994 51.06 50.91 2015 50.46 51.68
1974 51.10 50.57 1995 51.06 50.90 2016 50.44 51.66
1975 51.07 50.56 1996 51.05 50.90 1976 51.04 50.55 1997 51.05 50.90 1977 51.01 50.55 1998 51.04 50.90 1978 51.00 50.55 1999 51.04 50.92 1979 50.99 50.55 2000 51.03 50.95 1980 51.00 50.55 2001 51.02 50.99 Table 2

Figure 2
Source: worldbank.org
Table 2 and Figure 2 shows the percentage of the population that is male in Bangladesh and Malaysia from 1960 to 2016. The trend of the percentage of male population in Bangladesh is decreasing while in Malaysia, it is decreasing at first and then started to increase. Both countries have more male than female.

From the table and figure above, it is stated that in Bangladesh, the highest percentage of male population than female in 1960 which is 51.68 percent. While the lowest percentage of male population is 50.44 percent in 2016. As for Malaysia, the highest and lowest percentage of male population is 51.68 percent (2014 and 2015) and 50.52 percent (1983).

As a result, Bangladesh and Malaysia shared the high percentage of male population which is 51.68 but in different years. And Bangladesh has the lowest percentage of male population compared to Malaysia which is 50.44 in 2016.

As we can see from Figure 2, Bangladesh has the highest percentage of male population compared to Malaysia from 1960 to 2001. From 2002 until 2016, Malaysia’s percentage of male population is higher than Bangladesh.

Population female (% of total)
Years Population, female (% of total) Years Population, female (% of total) Years Population, female (% of total)
Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 48.32 49.09 1981 48.98 49.46 2002 48.98 48.95
1961 48.37 49.10 1982 48.95 49.47 2003 49.00 48.89
1962 48.42 49.12 1983 48.91 49.48 2004 49.03 48.82
1963 48.47 49.13 1984 48.88 49.47 2005 49.07 48.76
1964 48.53 49.15 1985 48.86 49.44 2006 49.13 48.69
1965 48.57 49.17 1986 48.86 49.39 2007 49.21 48.63
1966 48.61 49.20 1987 48.86 49.32 2008 49.29 48.57
1967 48.64 49.22 1988 48.87 49.24 2009 49.37 48.52
1968 48.67 49.25 1989 48.88 49.17 2010 49.43 48.46
1969 48.70 49.28 1990 48.89 49.12 2011 49.47 48.42
1970 48.74 49.32 1991 48.90 49.10 2012 49.50 48.37
1971 48.78 49.35 1992 48.91 49.09 2013 49.51 48.34
1972 48.82 49.38 1993 48.93 49.09 2014 49.53 48.32
1973 48.86 49.41 1994 48.94 49.09 2015 49.54 48.32
1974 48.90 49.43 1995 48.94 49.10 2016 49.56 48.34
1975 48.93 49.44 1996 48.95 49.10 1976 48.96 49.45 1997 48.95 49.10 1977 48.99 49.45 1998 48.96 49.10 1978 49.00 49.45 1999 48.96 49.08 1979 49.01 49.45 2000 48.97 49.05 1980 49.00 49.45 2001 48.98 49.01 Table 3

Figure 3
Source: worldbank.org
Table 3 and Figure 3 shows the percentage of the population that is female in Bangladesh and Malaysia from 1960 to 2016. The trend of the percentage of female population in Bangladesh is increasing while in Malaysia, it is increasing at first and then started to decrease. Both countries have less female than male.

From the table and figure above, it is stated that in Bangladesh, the highest percentage of female population in 2016 which is 49.56 percent. While the lowest percentage of female population is 48.32 percent in 1960. As for Malaysia, the highest and lowest percentage of female population is 49.48 percent (1983) and 48.32 percent (2014 and 2015).

As a result, Bangladesh has the highest percentage of female population which is 49.56 percent compared to Malaysia. Both countries shared the lowest percentage of male population which is 48.32 percent but in different years.

As we can see from Figure 2, Malaysia has the highest percentage of female population compared to Malaysia from 1960 to 2001. From 2002 until 2016, Bangladesh’s percentage of female population is higher than Malaysia.

Life expectancy at birth
Years Life expectancy at birth Years Life expectancy at birth Years Life expectancy at birth
Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 45.831 59.466 1981 53.917 68.348 2002 66.448 73.113
1961 46.46 60.044 1982 54.292 68.643 2003 66.965 73.242
1962 47.086 60.605 1983 54.678 68.93 2004 67.46 73.356
1963 47.694 61.148 1984 55.102 69.21 2005 67.937 73.463
1964 48.257 61.672 1985 55.578 69.482 2006 68.403 73.577
1965 48.69 62.176 1986 56.102 69.746 2007 68.861 73.704
1966 48.895 62.661 1987 56.654 70.002 2008 69.312 73.852
1967 48.838 63.128 1988 57.22 70.251 2009 69.759 74.022
1968 48.535 63.581 1989 57.8 70.492 2010 70.198 74.21
1969 48.05 64.019 1990 58.401 70.727 2011 70.626 74.408
1970 47.523 64.445 1991 59.033 70.955 2012 71.039 74.606
1971 47.136 64.857 1992 59.7 71.177 2013 71.431 74.797
1972 47.031 65.256 1993 60.4 71.394 2014 71.803 74.976
1973 47.291 65.643 1994 61.127 71.605 2015 72.155 75.143
1974 47.925 66.019 1995 61.868 71.813 2016 72.489 75.3
1975 48.865 66.383 1996 62.61 72.019 1976 49.981 66.736 1997 63.338 72.222 1977 51.098 67.078 1998 64.038 72.422 1978 52.082 67.41 1999 64.702 72.616 1979 52.878 67.732 2000 65.324 72.8 1980 53.478 68.044 2001 65.903 72.966 Table 4

Figure 4
Source: worldbank.org
Table 4 and Figure 4 shows the total life expectancy at birth (male and female) in Bangladesh and Malaysia from 1960 to 2016. Life expectancy indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life. The trend of life expectancy at birth in Bangladesh and Malaysia are increasing.
From the table and figure above, it is stated that in Bangladesh, the highest life expectancy at birth is in 2016 which is 72.49 years. While the lowest life expectancy at birth is 45.83 years in 1960. As for Malaysia, the highest and lowest life expectancy at birth is 75.30 years (2016) and 59.47 years (1960).

As a result, Malaysia has the highest life expectancy at birth which is 75.30 years compared to Bangladesh. And Bangladesh has the lowest life expectancy compared to Malaysia which is 45.83 years in 1960. As we can see from Figure 4, Malaysia’s life expectancy at birth is higher than Bangladesh from 1960 to 2016.
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
Years Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Years Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) Years Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)
Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 174.9 67.7 1981 130.7 24.1 2002 58.2 7.6
1961 170.6 63.7 1982 127.7 22.6 2003 55.6 7.3
1962 166.4 60 1983 124.6 21.2 2004 53.1 7.1
1963 162.7 56.6 1984 121.2 19.9 2005 50.6 7
1964 159.4 53.7 1985 117.9 18.7 2006 48.2 6.8
1965 156.6 51 1986 114.4 17.6 2007 45.8 6.8
1966 154.2 48.8 1987 110.8 16.7 2008 43.5 6.8
1967 152.3 46.8 1988 107.1 15.8 2009 41.3 6.7
1968 150.9 45.1 1989 103.4 15 2010 39.1 6.8
1969 149.9 43.6 1990 99.7 14.3 2011 37 6.8
1970 149.2 42.2 1991 95.9 13.6 2012 35 6.8
1971 148.6 40.9 1992 92.1 13 2013 33.2 6.9
1972 148 39.5 1993 88.3 12.4 2014 31.4 6.9
1973 147.3 38 1994 84.5 11.9 2015 29.7 7
1974 146.4 36.4 1995 80.8 11.5 2016 28.2 7.1
1975 145.1 34.7 1996 77.2 11.1 1976 143.4 32.9 1997 73.7 10.6 1977 141.4 31.1 1998 70.3 10.1 1978 139 29.2 1999 67 9.5 1979 136.4 27.5 2000 64 8.7 1980 133.6 25.7 2001 61 8.1 Table 5

Figure 5
Source: worldbank.org
Table 5 and Figure 5 shows infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) in Bangladesh and Malaysia from 1960 to 2016. Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. The trend of infant mortality rate for both countries are decreasing.

From the table and figure above, in Bangladesh, the highest infant mortality rate is in 1960 which is 174.90 deaths per 1,000 live births. While the lowest infant mortality rate is 28.20 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2016. While in Malaysia, the highest and lowest infant mortality rate is 67.70 deaths per 1,000 live births (1960) and 6.70 deaths per 1,000 live births (2009).

As a result, Bangladesh has the highest infant mortality rate which is 174.90 deaths per 1,000 live births compared to Malaysia. And Malaysia has the lowest infant mortality rate compared to Bangladesh which is 6.70 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2009. As we can see from Figure 4, Bangladesh’s infant mortality rate is higher than Malaysia from 1960 to 2016.
Under five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
Years Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) Years Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) Years Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)
Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 262.3 93.3 1981 194 28.8 2002 78.4 8.9
1961 255.8 87 1982 189.2 26.9 2003 74.3 8.6
1962 249.6 81.2 1983 184.3 25.1 2004 70.3 8.3
1963 244 75.9 1984 179 23.5 2005 66.5 8.1
1964 239 71.3 1985 173.5 22 2006 62.8 8
1965 234.8 67.1 1986 167.8 20.7 2007 59.3 7.9
1966 231.2 63.7 1987 161.8 19.5 2008 55.8 7.9
1967 228.3 60.7 1988 155.8 18.4 2009 52.6 7.9
1968 226.2 58.2 1989 149.8 17.5 2010 49.4 7.9
1969 224.6 56 1990 143.8 16.6 2011 46.5 7.9
1970 223.6 54 1991 137.8 15.8 2012 43.7 8
1971 222.7 52 1992 131.7 15.1 2013 41.1 8
1972 221.7 50 1993 125.7 14.4 2014 38.6 8.1
1973 220.6 47.9 1994 119.7 13.8 2015 36.3 8.2
1974 219.1 45.6 1995 113.9 13.3 2016 34.2 8.3
1975 217 43.1 1996 108.3 12.9 1976 214.3 40.6 1997 102.7 12.4 1977 211.1 38.1 1998 97.3 11.8 1978 207.3 35.6 1999 92.2 11 1979 203.1 33.2 2000 87.4 10.2 1980 198.6 31 2001 82.8 9.4 Table 6

Figure 6
Source: worldbank.org
Table 6 and Figure 6 shows under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) in Bangladesh and Malaysia from 1960 to 2016. Under-five mortality rate is the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five. The trend of under-five mortality rate for both countries are decreasing.

From the table and figure above, in Bangladesh, the highest under-five mortality rate is in 1960 which is 262.30 deaths per 1,000 live births. While the lowest under-five mortality rate is 34.20 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2016. While in Malaysia, the highest and lowest under-five mortality rate is 93.30 deaths per 1,000 live births (1960) and 7.90 deaths per 1,000 live births (2007 to 2011).

As a result, Bangladesh has the highest under-five mortality rate which is 262.30 deaths per 1,000 live births compared to Malaysia. And Malaysia has the lowest under-five mortality rate compared to Bangladesh which is 7.90 deaths per 1,000 live births from 2007 to 2011. As we can see from Figure 4, Bangladesh’s under-five mortality rate is higher than Malaysia from 1960 to 2016.
Infrastructure
In infrastructure, we do a comparison between Malaysia and Bangladesh into a few aspects such as fixed broadband subscription, electric power consumption (kWh per capita), secure internet servers and renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters). The time series for this result is within 1962 to 2016.

Fixed broadband subscriptions
YEAR MALAYSIA BANGLADESH
2001 4000 ..

2002 19302 ..

2003 110402 ..

2004 252500 ..

2005 483100 ..

2006 751000 ..

2007 1035200 43710
2008 1329300 50000
2009 1553600 316699
2010 2097800 414569
2011 2506700 468500
2012 2920900 600461
2013 2938800 1525325
2014 306100030931712015 2738700 4892940
2016 2718800 6592396Table 1

Figure 1
Source: worldbank.org
The table 1 and figure 1 above indicated on the fixed broadband subscription in both country Malaysia and Bangladesh. The data shown the time series that only available from 2001 until 2016. The data on Bangladesh only accessible from year 2007 onward. Overall, it can be interpreted that fixed broadband subscriptions on both countries which are Bangladesh and Malaysia keep increasing from time to time. Started from year 2001, Malaysia keeps increasing rapidly until reached at maximum level which at 3061000 subscriptions in year 2014. Afterward, the data remain declining.
While in Bangladesh, start year 2007 until 2013, the fixed broadband subscription is increasing in steady rate. Started in 2013, the subscription is rapidly increase. In 2014, Bangladesh able to achieve a higher rate with 3093171 subscription which is much higher than Malaysia maximum fixed broadband subscription. The maximum data that Bangladesh able to achieve is at 6592396 subscription which is double with Malaysia’s maximum fixed broadband subscription. It can be concluded that over time, Bangladesh able to achieve greater improvement
Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)
YEAR MALAYSIA BANGLADESH YEAR MALAYSIA BANGLADESH
1971 313.1345291 10.6887879 1993 1532.908 65.20947215
1972 347.3077381 10.50335168 1994 1784.269 68.96921714
1973 374.9774211 15.16934087 1995 2003.796 75.90125091
1974 400.2954032 16.85640376 1996 2187.285 79.49227525
1975 429.9326883 16.98316141 1997 2471.607 81.24846998
1976 466.6813646 17.27417705 1998 2525.475 86.16983278
1977 530.8608405 18.2446934 1999 2648.713 94.27287554
1978 560.5396116 21.43213776 2000 2748.084 101.4886293
1979 618.2671418 20.96248843 2001 2759.537 111.69426
1980 658.785161 18.68152613 2002 2821.668 119.2746738
1981 688.8432301 22.30018781 2003 2915.868 125.4576704
1982 728.6481524 25.20715356 2004 2986.322 160.2533607
1983 768.2228375 28.7191588 2005 2877.231 170.6812527
1984 816.2392107 31.59842791 2006 3072.419 190.9154645
1985 842.7494634 32.62880263 2007 3284.515 199.8311925
1986 883.9487974 36.92197872 2008 3301.235 201.2488571
1987 923.9879098 38.32473074 2009 3960.604 219.2420592
1988 996.8528719 41.33683319 2010 4159.64 239.8305315
1989 1075.731706 49.17024868 2011 4104.888 257.6343732
1990 1156.814983 48.3667547 2012 4323.347 274.8719582
1991 1265.606639 48.96648345 2013 4484.17 292.7500271
1992 1418.418529 58.64850152 2014 4596.332310.3912261
Table 2

Figure 2
Source: worldbank.org
Table 2 and figure 2 shows the data on electric power consumption kWh per capita in both countries which are Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, it can be indicated that Malaysia data keep fluctuated while Bangladesh keep rising but in lower rate. Based on Malaysia data, electric power consumption keeps rising at increasing rate until year 1997. After year 1997 until 2005, consumption is still rising but in decreasing rate. However, after 2003 until 2006, data keeps fluctuated. After 2006, data keep increasing until 2013. The highest electric power consumption that Malaysia could attain is at 4596.332 kWh per capita.
In Bangladesh, the data keep increasing and decreasing at low rate and its average not exceed 50.00 kWh per capita from year 1971 until 1991. Afterwards, on 1992 the electric power on consumption keep increasing in Bangladesh but still lower than Malaysia. the maximum amount that Bangladesh could attain is at 310.3912261 which still lower compared with Malaysia.

Secure Internet servers
YEAR MALAYSIA BANGLADESH
2001 146 1
2002 .. ..

2003 174 1
2004 284 3
2005 377 3
2006 446 3
2007 586 6
2008 738 15
2009 923 29
2010 1178 47
2011 1571 96
2012 1920 113
2013 1986 120
2014 2647 136
2015 3148 212
2016 3320 273Table 3

Figure 3
Source: worldbank.org
The table 3 and figure 3 shown the data on Secure Internet servers. The time series on the data for both countries Malaysia and Bangladesh is use from 2001 until 2016. Data in 2002 cannot be attain. The highest in Malaysia and Bangladesh are in year 2016 with 3320 and Bangladesh with 273 internet servers respectively. It can be interpreted that Malaysia is rising rapidly from year 2001 until achieve maximum at 1920 servers in 2012. In between year 2012 and 2013, the internet servers still rise but in lower rate. However, after year 2013 the data going back rising rapidly until reached 2016.

While in Bangladesh, the data on secure internet server is increase but in steady state over time. There is little improvement than previous year compared with Malaysia. The maximum and minimum amount that Bangladesh could attain is 273 and 1 internet servers which much lower than Malaysia.
Hence, overall it can be state that improvement in secure internet servers in Malaysia is much higher than Bangladesh.

Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita (cubic meters)
YEAR MALAYSIA BANGLADESH
1962 66721.76965 2057.607645
1967 57733.43319 1761.134213
1972 51217.5154 1553.312572
1977 45345.99227 1401.384643
1982 40081.17682 1220.826164
1987 35098.10647 1067.682868
1992 30505.88648 944.0583565
1997 26895.02709 847.7679964
2002 23968.11976 768.6638895
2007 21783.34622 713.610013
2012 19883.13107 674.2566431
2014 19187.49748 658.698386
Table 4

Figure 4
Source: worldbank.org
The table 4 and figure 4 above shows the renewable internet freshwater resources per capita in Malaysia and Bangladesh. The data indicates that both countries have been deterioration as time series increases. This data only presented once 5 years within year 1962 until 2012. Nevertheless, this pattern is changing after 2012 as the year gaps is shortened with 2 years until 2014.

Clearly, Malaysia is much higher than Bangladesh of renewable internet freshwater resources per capita and it differences is much higher although both country show declining. Malaysia shown decline rapidly from year 1962 until 2002. Then, after 2002 until 2014 the pattern changes with decline is in steady rate.

In Bangladesh, renewable internet freshwater resources from year 1962 until 2104, shown pattern decline is steady. In contrast of year 1962, Malaysia achieve the highest in renewable internet freshwater resources with 667722 per capita compared with Bangladesh with 2058 per capita.

Economy
In economy, we do a comparison between Malaysia and Bangladesh into a few aspects such as exports of goods and services (% of GDP), total reserve (include gold, current US$), inflation and consumer prices (annual %), GDP growth (annual %), gross savings (% of GDP) and foreign direct investments and net inflows (% of GDP). The time series for this result is within 1960 to 2016.

Exports of goods and services (% of GDP)
Years Bangladesh Malaysia Years Bangladesh Malaysia Years Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 10.00 64.45 1980 5.49 57.73 2000 12.34 119.81
1961 10.78 58.72 1981 5.13 52.50 2001 13.39 110.40
1962 10.75 56.14 1982 5.08 51.03 2002 12.41 108.31
1963 9.98 45.93 1983 5.60 50.97 2003 11.43 106.94
1964 10.03 44.28 1984 3.40 54.44 2004 11.15 115.37
1965 9.66 45.10 1985 5.38 55.08 2005 14.39 112.90
1966 10.28 43.40 1986 5.18 56.47 2006 16.35 112.19
1967 9.31 41.17 1987 4.99 62.89 2007 17.00 106.17
1968 8.33 43.43 1988 5.43 66.42 2008 17.66 99.50
1969 8.15 47.42 1989 5.54 71.38 2009 16.94 91.42
1970 8.31 45.83 1990 5.91 74.47 2010 16.02 86.93
1971 6.29 40.65 1991 6.66 77.83 2011 19.92 85.26
1972 5.67 36.18 1992 7.59 75.98 2012 20.16 79.30
1973 6.54 41.68 1993 9.02 78.92 2013 19.54 75.63
1974 3.70 48.54 1994 9.00 89.15 2014 18.99 73.79
1975 2.90 45.76 1995 10.86 94.09 2015 17.34 70.60
1976 4.75 52.06 1996 9.71 91.58 2016 16.65 67.67
1977 7.04 50.37 1997 10.52 93.29 2017 .. ..

1978 5.56 49.21 1998 11.76 115.74 1979 6.11 56.19 1999 11.76 121.31 Table 1

Figure 1
Source: worldbank.org
The line graph in Figure 1 shows the relationship between the export of goods and services between Malaysia and Bangladesh against year. The export of goods and services (y-axis) is measured in percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Meanwhile the year (x-axis) are studied from 1960 to 2016. The blue line represents export of goods and services in Bangladesh from 1960 until 2016. Malaysia’s exports of goods and services on the other hand is symbolize by the red line from 1960 to 2016.
As we can observe from Figure 1, Malaysia (64.45%) slightly higher in term of percentage of GDP compared to Bangladesh (10.00%) for the first starting year which is in 1960. Then, both countries start to increase their exports gradually year by year but the huge difference of percentage of GDP causing a big gap. Malaysia still leading the exports of goods and services and left Bangladesh behind. This can be significantly remarked when Malaysia have achieved the highest GDP over the year in 1999 with 121.31% of GDP while Bangladesh at 11.76%.
After that, Malaysia’s exports of goods and services started reduce year by year. On the other, Bangladesh also experience the same trend in exports of goods and services. Bangladesh have achieved its highest percentage of GDP in 2012 with 20.16%. Both countries had shown a decreasing pattern of exports of goods and services until recent year in 2016. The data shown that Malaysia is with 67.67% of GDP and Bangladesh is 16.65% in 2016.

Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 .. 4.71E+08 1980 3.31E+08 5.75E+09 2000 1.52E+09 2.87E+10
1961 .. 4.72E+08 1981 1.6E+08 5.02E+09 2001 1.31E+09 2.98E+10
1962 .. 5.32E+08 1982 2.09E+08 4.83E+09 2002 1.72E+09 3.38E+10
1963 .. 5.55E+08 1983 5.46E+08 4.67E+09 2003 2.62E+09 4.43E+10
1964 .. 5.93E+08 1984 4.08E+08 4.44E+09 2004 3.22E+09 6.64E+10
1965 .. .. 1985 3.56E+08 5.68E+09 2005 2.83E+09 7.05E+10
1966 .. .. 1986 4.35E+08 6.94E+09 2006 3.88E+09 8.29E+10
1967 .. 4.57E+08 1987 8.76E+08 8.57E+09 2007 5.28E+09 1.02E+11
1968 .. 5.29E+08 1988 1.08E+09 7.49E+09 2008 5.79E+09 9.22E+10
1969 .. 6.2E+08 1989 5.32E+08 8.73E+09 2009 1.03E+10 9.67E+10
1970 .. 6.67E+08 1990 6.6E+08 1.07E+10 2010 1.12E+10 1.07E+11
1971 .. 8.27E+08 1991 1.31E+09 1.17E+10 2011 9.17E+09 1.34E+11
1972 .. 1.01E+09 1992 1.85E+09 1.8E+10 2012 1.28E+10 1.4E+11
1973 143195868.3 1.46E+09 1993 2.45E+09 2.82E+10 2013 1.81E+10 1.35E+11
1974 138200000 1.86E+09 1994 3.17E+09 2.63E+10 2014 2.23E+10 1.16E+11
1975 148263262.4 1.69E+09 1995 2.38E+09 2.47E+10 2015 2.75E+10 9.53E+10
1976 288917105.7 2.63E+09 1996 1.87E+09 2.79E+10 2016 3.23E+10 9.45E+10
1977 241498645.5 3.07E+09 1997 1.61E+09 2.15E+10 2017 .. 1978 321264479.6 3.67E+09 1998 1.94E+09 2.62E+10 1979 413645589.1 5.01E+09 1999 1.63E+09 3.09E+10 Total Reserve (include gold, current US$)
Table 2

Figure 2
Source: worldbank.org
The graph in Figure 2 shows the relationship between the total reserve of two countries, Malaysia and Bangladesh against year. The y-axis is represent the total reserve of Malaysia and Bangladesh respectively which include gold and current US$. Also, the x-axis is represent year from 1960 to 2016. The blue line graph are denote as the total reserve of Bangladesh while the red line is indicate Malaysia’s total reserve.

The total reserve for Malaysia in 1960 was 4.71E+08 but in Bangladesh there are no data available for that time period. Bangladesh’s total reserve is starting in 1973 with 1.43E+08 which indicate that it was slightly lower than Malaysia in the same year with 1.46E+09. Hence, it signifies that Malaysia is leading the total reserve that consists of gold and current US$ compared to the Bangladesh.

Malaysia have achieved it highest total reserves with 1.4E+11 in 2012, while Bangladesh is at 1.28E+10. Meanwhile, Bangladesh have reached its highest total reserve by 3.23E+10 in 2016 and Malaysia with 9.45E+10. But then, Malaysia still in the leads while the Bangladesh try to catch up with the progress in Malaysia. The recent data was in 2016 where the total reserve of Malaysia and Bangladesh is at 9.45E+10 and 3.23E+10 respectively. This illustrate that Bangladesh have smaller differences with Malaysia and improved gradually to rise it total reserve.

Inflation and consumer prices (annual %)
Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 .. 0.06 1980 .. 6.67 2000 2.21 1.53
1961 .. -0.18 1981 .. 9.70 2001 2.01 1.42
1962 .. 0.11 1982 .. 5.82 2002 3.33 1.81
1963 .. 3.11 1983 .. 3.70 2003 5.67 0.99
1964 .. -0.40 1984 .. 3.90 2004 7.59 1.52
1965 .. -0.11 1985 .. 0.35 2005 7.05 2.96
1966 .. 0.97 1986 .. 0.74 2006 6.77 3.61
1967 .. 4.58 1987 9.87 0.29 2007 9.11 2.03
1968 .. -0.16 1988 7.41 2.56 2008 8.90 5.44
1969 .. -0.41 1989 6.05 2.81 2009 5.42 0.58
1970 .. 1.84 1990 6.13 2.62 2010 8.13 1.71
1971 .. 1.61 1991 6.36 4.36 2011 10.70 3.20
1972 .. 3.23 1992 3.63 4.77 2012 6.22 1.65
1973 .. 10.56 1993 3.01 3.54 2013 7.53 2.10
1974 .. 17.33 1994 5.31 3.72 2014 6.99 3.17
1975 .. 4.49 1995 10.30 3.45 2015 6.19 2.08
1976 .. 2.63 1996 2.38 3.49 2016 5.51 2.13
1977 .. 4.79 1997 5.31 2.66 2017 .. ..

1978 .. 4.86 1998 8.40 5.27 1979 .. 3.65 1999 6.11 2.74 Table 3

Figure 3
Source: worldbank.org
In Figure 3, it explained the relationship between the inflation, consumer prices of Malaysia and Bangladesh against year. The y-axis indicates the inflation and consumer prices of Malaysia and Bangladesh. The x-axis is the year that are studied which is from 1960 to 2016. The inflation, consumer prices are measured in annual percentage. The blue line in the graph signifies the inflation, consumer prices of Bangladesh from 1960 to 2016 while the red line is represented Malaysia’s inflation, consumer prices within the same period.

In 1690, Malaysia inflation, consumer prices is 0.06% while there was no data available for Bangladesh. In addition, Malaysia had achieved the highest inflation, consumer prices in 1973 with 17.33% and no data for Bangladesh. On the other hand, Malaysia also experience the lowest inflation, consumer prices with -0.41% in 1969 and there no data available for Bangladesh in early 1970s. Bangladesh on another aspects have achieved its highest inflation, consumer prices in 2011 with 10.70% compared to Malaysia with 3.20%. Also, the lowest of the inflation, consumer prices in Bangladesh is 2.01% in 2001.

In the most recent data available is for 2016. Bangladesh’s inflation, consumer prices is 5.51%. Meanwhile, for Malaysia, its inflation, consumer prices is at 2.13%. Thus, it indicate that Bangladesh is experiencing greater inflation and consumer prices compared to Malaysia.

GDP growth (annual %)
Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 .. .. 1980 0.82 7.44 2000 5.29 8.86
1961 6.06 7.60 1981 7.23 6.94 2001 5.08 0.52
1962 5.45 6.42 1982 2.13 5.94 2002 3.83 5.39
1963 -0.46 7.34 1983 3.88 6.25 2003 4.74 5.79
1964 10.95 5.36 1984 4.80 7.76 2004 5.24 6.78
1965 1.61 7.68 1985 3.34 -1.12 2005 6.54 5.33
1966 2.57 7.82 1986 4.17 1.15 2006 6.67 5.58
1967 -1.88 3.86 1987 3.77 5.39 2007 7.06 9.43
1968 9.49 7.98 1988 2.42 9.94 2008 6.01 3.32
1969 1.22 4.89 1989 2.84 9.06 2009 5.05 -2.53
1970 5.62 5.99 1990 5.62 9.01 2010 5.57 6.98
1971 -5.48 5.75 1991 3.49 9.55 2011 6.46 5.29
1972 -13.97 9.38 1992 5.44 8.89 2012 6.52 5.47
1973 3.33 11.71 1993 4.71 9.89 2013 6.01 4.69
1974 9.59 8.31 1994 3.89 9.21 2014 6.06 6.01
1975 -4.09 0.80 1995 5.12 9.83 2015 6.55 5.03
1976 5.66 11.56 1996 4.52 10.00 2016 7.11 4.22
1977 2.67 7.76 1997 4.49 7.32 2017 .. ..

1978 7.07 6.65 1998 5.18 -7.36 1979 4.80 9.35 1999 4.67 6.14 Table 4

Figure 4
Source: worldbank.org
Figure 4 is showing a relationship between the GDP growth in two countries which are Malaysia and Bangladesh against the year. The y-axis signifies the GDP growth of Malaysia and Bangladesh respectively and measured by annual percentage. In the meantime, the x-axis is the year which includes from 1960 until 2016. The blue line represents the GDP growth of Bangladesh from 1960 to 2016. Red line on the other hand is indicating Malaysia’s GDP growth for 1960 to 2016.
In 1964, Bangladesh have reached its highest GDP growth with 10.95% compared to other year. The percentage also show that GDP growth in Bangladesh is more higher than Malaysia (5.36%) on that year. Apart from that, Malaysia have achieved its most performing GDP growth in 1973 which is 11.71%. It shown a huge difference with Bangladesh with 3.33%.

On most recent year which is 2016, Malaysia and Bangladesh have gained their GDP growth with 4.22% and 7.11% respectively. This clearly illustrates that Bangladesh have leading the lead compared to Malaysia.
Gross savings (% of GDP)
Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 .. .. 1980 8.33 26.75 2000 26.95 35.92
1961 .. .. 1981 14.47 22.27 2001 26.64 32.25
1962 .. .. 1982 15.65 20.72 2002 30.10 32.74
1963 .. .. 1983 18.50 22.47 2003 29.86 34.85
1964 .. .. 1984 15.98 25.83 2004 30.82 35.14
1965 .. .. 1985 15.38 23.31 2005 32.07 36.82
1966 .. .. 1986 17.09 23.44 2006 34.64 38.80
1967 .. .. 1987 17.29 28.84 2007 35.80 38.77
1968 .. .. 1988 17.33 28.84 2008 37.09 38.52
1969 .. .. 1989 15.94 28.96 2009 38.64 33.36
1970 .. .. 1990 16.43 30.38 2010 38.46 33.47
1971 .. .. 1991 19.32 29.28 2011 37.28 34.08
1972 .. .. 1992 20.67 31.70 2012 39.85 30.92
1973 .. .. 1993 21.46 34.71 2013 38.88 29.42
1974 .. 25.02 1994 22.85 35.09 2014 37.73 29.37
1975 .. 21.18 1995 21.66 33.89 2015 36.05 28.14
1976 -0.84 28.95 1996 20.79 37.04 2016 37.12 28.23
1977 10.04 28.17 1997 23.79 37.02 2017 .. ..

1978 5.70 25.36 1998 24.95 39.85 1979 7.08 30.94 1999 25.78 38.31 Table 5

Figure 5
Source: worldbank.org
The Figure 5 above illustrate the relationship between the gross savings of Malaysia and Bangladesh against the year. The y-axis is representing the gross savings in term of percentage of GDP for both countries. The x-axis is symbolize the year from 1960 until 2016. In a meantime, the blue line of the line graph is illustrating the gross savings of Bangladesh over the year. Also, the red line is signify the gross savings of Malaysia over the year from 1960 to 2016.

From Bangladesh side, it have attained the peak in term of gross savings in 2012 (39.85%). On the same year, Malaysia have gained about 30.92% of gross savings which is a bit lower that Bangladesh. But on 2006, Malaysia have achieved it highest gross savings with 38.80%, which shown that a little bit higher than Bangladesh with 34.64%.

But then, Bangladesh keep on increasing their gross savings and have reached 37.12% in 2016 which is the most recent year. Meanwhile Malaysia have attained about 28.23% in term of gross savings for the same year. Thus, Bangladesh have greater gross savings compared to Malaysia.

Foreign direct investments, net inflows (% of GDP)
Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia Year Bangladesh Malaysia
1960 .. .. 1980 0.05 3.81 2000 0.53 4.04
1961 .. .. 1981 0.03 5.06 2001 0.15 0.60
1962 .. .. 1982 0.04 5.21 2002 0.10 3.17
1963 .. .. 1983 0.00 4.15 2003 0.45 2.92
1964 .. .. 1984 0.00 2.35 2004 0.69 3.51
1965 .. .. 1985 -0.03 2.23 2005 1.10 2.73
1966 .. .. 1986 0.01 1.76 2006 0.64 4.73
1967 .. .. 1987 0.01 1.31 2007 0.82 4.69
1968 .. .. 1988 0.01 2.04 2008 1.45 3.28
1969 .. .. 1989 0.00 4.29 2009 0.88 0.06
1970 .. 2.43 1990 0.01 5.30 2010 1.07 4.27
1971 .. 2.36 1991 0.00 8.14 2011 0.98 5.07
1972 0.00 2.26 1992 0.01 8.76 2012 1.19 2.83
1973 0.03 2.24 1993 0.04 7.48 2013 1.74 3.49
1974 0.02 6.01 1994 0.03 5.83 2014 1.47 3.14
1975 0.01 3.77 1995 0.00 4.71 2015 1.45 3.33
1976 0.05 3.45 1996 0.03 5.04 2016 1.05 4.56
1977 0.07 3.09 1997 0.29 5.14 2017 .. ..

1978 0.06 3.06 1998 0.38 3.00 1979 -0.05 2.70 1999 0.35 4.92 Table 6

Figure 6
Source: worldbank.org
The illustration in Figure 6 shows the relationship between foreign direct investments (FDI), net inflows of Malaysia and Bangladesh against the year. The y a-axis is representing the FDI, net inflows in term of percentage of GDP of Malaysia and Bangladesh. The x-axis is signify the year which are from 1960 to 2016. In addition, the blue line on the graph shown the FDI, net inflows of Bangladesh over the year from 1960 to 2016. The red line is representing Malaysia’s FDI, net inflows in term of % of GDP from 1960 to 2016.

Bangladesh have attained the highest FDI, net inflows in 2013 with 1.74% compared to other years. Even though in 2013 they achieved the highest FDI, net inflows, it still cannot beat Malaysia’s FDI, net inflows (3.49%) on the same year. Malaysia on the other hand, achieved the highest FDI, net inflows in 1992 with 8.76% compared to Bangladesh with 0.01%. Hence, it shown a huge gap between the countries.

In 2016, which is the most recent year, Malaysia and Bangladesh have achieved their FDI, net inflows with 4.56% and 1.05% respectively. The differences is quite massive about 3.51% where Bangladesh is left behind.

Gender
This analysis is to see whether male or female are contributing more in employment and contributing family worker male and female between these two countries which is Malaysia and Bangladesh. By analyse between gender for these two countries, we can see how the economics contribution among females and males. As we know, usually there is a differences or gap among the gender economics opportunities. To know how much the gap and what country have the better economics opportunities we conduct a documentary analysis from The World Bank Data. However this study is only from year 1991 until 2017 and the other years before 1991 and after 2017 were not stated.

Employers, female (% of female employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Years Bangladesh Malaysia Years Bangladesh Malaysia
1991 0.18 2.03 2005 0.15 1.40
1992 0.19 0.63 2006 0.16 1.54
1993 0.19 0.61 2007 0.16 1.35
1994 0.21 0.65 2008 0.17 1.39
1995 0.20 0.73 2009 0.19 1.55
1996 0.20 0.85 2010 0.20 1.63
1997 0.20 0.84 2011 0.30 1.65
1998 0.20 0.84 2012 0.31 1.55
1999 0.16 0.81 2013 0.33 1.72
2000 0.16 0.85 2014 0.35 1.51
2001 0.16 1.08 2015 0.37 1.72
2002 0.15 1.06 2016 0.40 1.45
2003 0.15 1.19 2017 0.40 1.46
2004 0.14 1.31
Table 1

Figure 1
Source: worldbank.org
The table and graph above show the employers female in Malaysia and Bangladesh. The data is from year 1991 until year 2017. As we can see the employment of female in both countries does not stable time to time.
We can see from the graph for easier understanding, for Malaysia, in the beginning employment of female is extremely higher than Bangladesh in year 1991. But in year 1992 employment of female in Malaysia suddenly drop but still higher than Bangladesh.

For over all we can say that from year 1991 to year 2017 Malaysia have higher employment of female compare to employment of female in Bangladesh.

Employers, male (% of male employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Years Bangladesh Malaysia Years Bangladesh Malaysia
1991 0.571 3.637 2005 0.203 4.45
1992 0.588 3.037 2006 0.21 5.16
1993 0.597 2.94 2007 0.218 4.626
1994 0.616 3.077 2008 0.224 4.663
1995 0.61 3.361 2009 0.239 4.875
1996 0.619 4.123 2010 0.245 5.023
1997 0.623 3.515 2011 3.158 4.752
1998 0.63 4.009 2012 3.241 5.032
1999 0.199 3.056 2013 3.374 5.328
2000 0.201 4.165 2014 3.491 5.191
2001 0.203 4.49 2015 3.586 5.489
2002 0.197 4.123 2016 3.745 4.68
2003 0.199 4.608 2017 3.761 4.683
2004 0.197 4.828 Table 2

Figure 2
Source: worldbank.org
The graph and table below show the employers male and Bangladesh and Malaysia. The graph show that male employment in Malaysia is higher that male employment Bangladesh. We can see that the percentage of male employment in Bangladesh is no more that 50% in every year compared to Malaysia that having percentage of male employment up to 100%.

Over all we can conclude that the employment among males in Malaysia is much higher than Bangladesh.

Contributing family workers, female (% of female employment) (modelled ILO estimate)
Years Bangladesh Malaysia Years Bangladesh Malaysia
1991 59.666 8.319 2005 61.386 8.525
1992 58.701 15.997 2006 60.428 9.025
1993 58.4 15.397 2007 59.55 8.84
1994 57.364 14.268 2008 59.01 8.081
1995 57.839 13.159 2009 57.093 7.922
1996 57.424 13.839 2010 56.25 7.695
1997 57.215 12.411 2011 44.19 7.337
1998 57.053 12.034 2012 43.383 8.528
1999 61.392 11.754 2013 41.877 8.423
2000 61.245 11.114 2014 40.535 8.226
2001 61.156 10.27 2015 39.495 8.19
2002 62.208 9.639 2016 37.737 7.675
2003 61.839 9.586 2017 37.463 7.658
2004 62.17 9.652 Table 3

Figure 3
Source: worldbank.org
The table and graph above shows contributing family workers females in Malaysia and Bangladesh from year 1991 until year 2017. As we can see the contributing family workers in Bangladesh is much higher than Malaysia in every year except in year 1992. In year 1992, contributing family workers of females in Malaysia is higher than Bangladesh but after year 1992 there is decreasing of number in Malaysia until year 2017. After 1992, contributing of family workers of females in Bangladesh keep increasing until year 2004 but suddenly down until year 2017.

Over all, we can conclude that the number contributing family worker of females in Bangladesh is higher than Malaysia from year 1991 to year 2017. This shows mostly females in Bangladesh need to work for support their family to survive rather than only being housewife.

Contributing family workers, male (% of male employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Years Bangladesh Malaysia Years Bangladesh Malaysia
1991 11.366 2.416 2005 8.451 2.307
1992 11.192 3.916 2006 8.137 2.765
1993 10.947 3.712 2007 7.748 2.754
1994 10.905 3.504 2008 7.385 2.614
1995 10.566 3.3 2009 7.251 2.449
1996 10.392 2.961 2010 7.024 2.482
1997 10.199 2.749 2011 5.774 2.391
1998 9.909 2.997 2012 5.496 2.588
1999 10.228 3.307 2013 5.292 2.487
2000 9.936 2.666 2014 5.098 2.277
2001 9.613 2.316 2015 4.876 2.164
2002 9.305 2.066 2016 4.661 2.347
2003 9.123 2.169 2017 4.599 2.342
2004 8.782 2.441 Table 4

Figure 4
Source: worldbank.org
The graph and table above show the contributing family workers, male in Bangladesh and Malaysia from year 1991 to 2017. We can see that the graph show contributing family worker of male in Bangladesh is so much higher than Malaysia.

We can say that in Malaysia, the number of contributing family worker of males is stable from year to year. The increasing or decreasing of the number is not have a big gap between the year.
For Bangladesh, the percentage of male employment keep decreasing time by time until the last year 2017. This show that number of males that contributing in family worker are keep decreasing.

7.0 CONCLUSION
Based on the result, we can perceive that there are five indicators to measure the development in Malaysia and Bangladesh which is education, health, infrastructure, economy and gender. We can see that this research gives overview of how Malaysia and Bangladesh has been achieved in their development from 1960 until 2016.
In the future research, this study will help to give an idea towards this issue. However, the next research can be emphasized more on how the government can focus on to improve these five indicators in moving towards better nation. From this research, we can see that these indicators are a must to measure the development of a country.
Indicators perform many functions. They can lead to better decisions and more effective actions by simplifying, clarifying and making aggregated information available to policy makers. They can help incorporate physical and social science knowledge into decision-making, and they can help measure and calibrate progress toward sustainable development goals. They are also useful tools to communicate ideas, thoughts and values.

Last but not least, the next researcher should change or adding the new indicator. The researcher in the future can adding the new indicators to environment such as air quality and climate change, employment and technologies. The researcher also can get to know and having different answer and analysis the answer to know which those indicators affect development of a country.
8.0 REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY
Dayang Hummida Abang Abdul Rahman, N. M. (Dec. 2017). Economic Growth in Malaysia: A Causality Study on Macroeconomics Factors. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Business, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 61 – 70.

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The World Bank Group (2016, October 13). Bangladesh: Ensuring Education for All Bangladeshis. http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/10/07/ensuring-education-for-all-bangladeshisMohamed Ghouse Nasuruddin (2017, December 21). Evolution of the Malaysian educational system – A scenario of uncertainty and turmoil. http://www.thesundaily.my/news/2017/12/21/evolution-malaysian-educational-system-%E2%80%93-scenario-uncertainty-and-turmoilRumberger, R., and Lim, S. (2008). Why Students Drop Out of School: A Review of 25 Years of Research. University of California santa Barbara, California: California Dropout Research Project
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Abdul Jalil, Muhammad, Sustainable Development in Malaysia: A Case Study on Household Waste Management. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 23-34, 2010. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1662135Islam, T. 2000a. Flak For Token Parliament Quota. Accessed 10 September, 2001, Contemporary Women’s Issues Database.

Rashila Ramli. 2000. “Modernisasi Politik: Ke Arah Keseimbangan Gender dalam Penyertaan Politik?” In Abdul Rahman Embong (ed.), Negara, Pasaran dan Pemodenan Malaysia. Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, pp. 198- 213.

THE OFFICE OF CHIEF STATISTICIAN MALAYSIA DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MALAYSIA 31 October 2017
Mehedi